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the blanket had object permanence and were to get upset if mom were to leave the room.oImportance of ability to form mental representations of mom in how attachment is expressed.oBefore attachment can occur, one must reach certain cognitive milestones.Evolutionary Approach:oAttachment is adaptiveoBiological preparednessInstinctual signaling by baby elicits parental careHelpless babies require the care and attention of their parentsSensitive parental responding leads to mutual bondBabies have little reflexes that enforce adult attention. If the baby smiles at you after a certain behavior, you would want to be around them since they are encouraging you to do so.The parent’s response to the cues of care by the baby strengthens the mutual bond with the parent. The parent is instinctually driven to respond to the cues. Together, the baby and the parent are forming the bond that strengthens the survival of the baby.Modern Attachment Theory: ConceptsAffectional Bond:The desire to be close to someone. Characterized as an interchangeable, significant, and loving relationship.Attachment: Seeking security and comfort in the relationship. This is evident with Harlow’s studies with the monkeys. The mother acts as a safe base.oSafe Base: warmth, security, comfort
Attachment Behaviors: wanting to be close, decreasing distance, smiling more often, making eye contact, and soothes you more. They are exhibited when the child is placed in a scary situation in which they would run to the mother as she acts as a safe base.Affectional BondsInfant Temperament: the mother provides the necessary stimulation to nurture or sooth the baby.Responsive Interaction: the way the baby acts has a positive or negative influence onthe parenting style of the mother.Mother-child vs. father-child bonds:oMom changes more diapers, feed their babies, spend time with the baby, and provide comfort or security.oDad is involved in play-based activities.Phases of Attachment (Bowlby, 1969; 1991)Phase 1 (0-2 months):o“non-focused” orienting and signaling where they are not targeted towards a certain personoProximity-promoting behaviors to get to people is non-discriminatoryoRoots of attachment established (i.e. recognizing mom, dad, etc.)Phase 2 (2-6 months):oProximity-promoting behaviors are now focused on special people (i.e. those that they recognize) but still somewhat indiscriminateoNo true attachments yet (i.e. they do not have a safe base)oThey like anyone they see, including strangers, but they have a preference for familiar faces.Phase 3 (6-18 months):oFormation of genuine attachmentoProximity-promoting behavior is now discriminatoryoFear of strangers and have separation anxietyWhat about Dad?Babies prefer dad at 7 months old to someone unfamiliarIn a normal situation, there is no preference over mom and dad (i.e. both are loved equally)In a scary situation, there is a clear preference for mom since she acts as a safe base for the child in which she provides comfort, warmth, and security.Ross (1975):oThe amount spent with the baby was operationalized by the number of diapersthat they changed