Tests for cognitive impairment example bender gestalt

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Tests for cognitive impairment Example Bender-Gestalt Visual-Motor Test Problems with neuropsychological tests False positives: Mistakenly shows a problem where there is none False negatives: Fails to detect a problem that is present
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Clinical Assessment Neuroimaging: Pictures of the brain Two objectives: Understand brain structure Understand brain function
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Clinical Assessment Imaging brain structure Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) Utilizes X-rays Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Utilizes strong magnetic fields Better resolution than CT scan
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Clinical Assessment Imaging brain function Positron emission tomography (PET) involve injection of glucose & radioactive tracer Functional MRI (fMRI) – brief changes in brain activity
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Clinical Assessment Psychophysiological assessment Learn more about the physiological bases of psychological processes Electroencephalogram (EEG) – brain wave activity Heart rate and respiration Examples – PTSD; sleep disorders
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Diagnosing Psychological Disorders: Foundations in Classification Diagnostic classification Classification is central to all sciences Detailed description accompanies each mental disorder Terminology of classification systems Taxonomy – classification in a scientific context Nosology – taxonomy in psychological/medical phenomena Nomenclature – labels in a nosological system (e.g., “panic disorder” “depressive disorders”)
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Issues with Classifying and Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Categorical and dimensional approaches Classical (or pure) categorical approach – strict categories (e.g., you either have social anxiety disorder or you don’t) Dimensional approach – classification along dimensions (e.g., different people have varying amounts of anxiety in social situations) Prototypical approach – combines classical and dimensional views
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Issues with Classifying and Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Widely used classification systems Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Updated every 10-20 years Current edition (released May 2013): DSM-5 Previous edition called DSM-IV-TR ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) Published by the World Health Organization (WHO)
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History of the DSM Based on classification system developed by Emil Kraepelin DSM - I (1952) & DSM – II (1968) Introduction of DSM-III in 1980 revolutionized classification Previous editions relied heavily on psychoanalytic and biological theories Classification newly relied on specific lists of symptoms, improving reliability and validity Diagnoses classified along five “Axes” describing types of problems (e.g. disorder categories, health problems, life stressors)
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