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12. Justices who favor going beyond the words of the Constitution to consider thebroader societal implications of the Supreme Court’s decisions are considered advocates of the philosophy of judicial activism.END CHAPTER TWELVE QUIZCHAPTER TENTHE PRESIDENCYBarack Obama made it possible through legislation to give health insurance for 32 million Americans who didn’t have it before.Obama’s Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection act in 2010 set new regulations on the financial services sector, who was blamed for the recession of 2008 (“great recession”).Obama also ended war in Iraq/brought most troops home from Afghanistan.He also killed Osama bin Laden and forced Congress to end government shutdown in 2013, increase national debt limit, and accept his judicial/executive branch nominees that were controversial. Senate Democrats succeeding in partially eliminating the practice of filibustering.He also had failures—couldn’t bring about immigration reform or increase minimum wage.Some of his actions were controversial—agreeing to reduce sanctions againstIran in exchange for Iran promising to slow their nuclear weapons development.Despite Obama’s success, America still has issues.Obama’s presidency was considerably more powerful than the presidency imagined by the Constitution framers.National emergencies were some of the biggest challenges to presidents, but have also strengthened the office.PRESIDENTIAL POWER IS ROOTED IN THE CONSTITUTIONArticle II of the Constitution established the presidency. First words: ‘The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.” Article describes how to choose president, defines basic powers of presidency.By giving executive power to 1 person, the framers rejected proposals for collective leadership.Presidential selection process was the result of argument between those whowanted president chosen by Congress/responsible to Congress and those who wanted president chosen by the people.Direct popular election would create a more independent and more powerful presidency. Indirect elections provide that electors are chosen by state
legislatures (close elections resolved in house of representatives). It was “republican” solution to the problem.The president is responsible to state and national legislatures, not directly to the electorate.This indirect method of choosing president lessened the power of most presidents in 10t century. Presidential power increased as president developed closer and more direct relationship with electorate.In the 19thcentury, the framers’ idea of electors being chosen by state legislatures gave way to various systems of popular selection of the electors. This made presidency more democratic/made president more directly responsible to the electorate.