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In another study by Parent, Sanders, & Forehand, (2016), findings indicated that, regardless of the developmental stage of the child, excessive screen time was associated with more sleep disturbances, which in turn led to higher levels of behavioral health problems in children. Parents were surveyed on how much time their child spends watching TV, using the computer, playing video games, and using a tablet or smartphone in a typical week. They were also asked to take the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) to measure sleep disturbances and duration. Based on these findings, researchers were able to rate children’s problems with internalizing and externalizing behaviors and peer problems. They found that the higher the screen time use, the more likely the child was to develop some of these behavior problems. However, this study had some limitations. The data was cross-sectional, which raises questions that are better addressed in longitudinal studies. Also, all variables in this model were from a single reporter, causing bias. Dr. Ben Carter and associates (2016) set out to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether there was a significant association between portable device (cell phones and tablets) use in the sleep environment and sleep outcomes. The study included clinicaltrials, cohort studies, and cross-sectional study designs. The primary outcomes of all of the data
RESEARCH PROPOSAL PART 47collected was that using portable devices at bedtime caused inadequate sleep quantity and poor sleep quality, which lead to excessive daytime sleepiness. In summary, it is clear that there is evidence that supports a correlation between screen time and poor sleep habits in children, which can further lead to the development of health problems. In light of the studies reviewed, there is a need to conduct further studies that will apply more qualitative methods of data collection about sleep time in relation to screen time as most studies are based on quantitative methods. Study SettingsThis study will involve children between the ages of 9-15 years old and their parents whoattend a youth program at a church. The youth meet weekly so it will be easy to track data on a weekly basis. The youth involved in this program are mainly suburban children from a middle class community and attend the same school district. The youth director at the church will also bemade aware of the study so that the teaching curricula for the duration of the study will not include lengthy screen time. Research DesignFor this study, a qualitative phenomenological research design will be used in order to capture a better analysis of the participant experience. Qualitative analysis techniques use wordsrather than just a numeric rating scale to gather data. They develop themes, which are patterns in the data that are repeated by more than one participant. Phenomenological research illuminates the lived experience of the participant (Gray et al., 2017). The reason for selecting a qualitative