Cultivating+the+Opinionated+Postprint.doc

In a final step we removed all non significant

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In a final step, we removed all non-significant variables from the analysis (Model 4). This parsimonious model was as predictive of scary world beliefs as Model 3. Most importantly, it shows that the interaction between crime drama exposure and NTE was not merely significant by virtue of redundant controls. The interaction term of crime drama viewing and NTE accounted for 2.4% of the variance in scary world beliefs. TABLE 2 ABOUT HERE FIGURE 1 ABOUT HERE Discussion
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NEED TO EVALUATE MODERATES CULTIVATION EFFECTS 17 Research on the psychological processes underlying cultivation generally distinguishes first- and second-order effects based on the type and the presumed moment of judgment (Shrum & Lee, 2012). First-order judgments (frequency or percentage estimates) are unlikely to be stored in memory and therefore need to be produced in response to survey questions. Second-order cultivation judgments (attitudes or opinions) should be readily available because they are repeatedly updated during every-day experiences, including television viewing. In this paper we have argued why such a view of second-order effects is problematic. As the attitude literature suggests, it is oversimplified to equate answering second-order cultivation questions with the retrieval of a summary evaluation that is the product of prior online processing. In particular, people who are low in NTE generally lack the goal to evaluate information online, are less likely to form strong opinions over time, and therefore need to produce answers to opinion questions based on information temporarily accessible from memory. Hence, it seems less likely that television viewing frequency would correlate directly with the extremity of their evaluative judgments. High NTE individuals, however, do fit into cultivation researchers’ assumptions regarding the chronic online evaluation of information and the retrieval of these strong evaluations when answering opinion questions. We therefore proposed NTE as a boundary condition of second-order cultivation. More specifically, we only hypothesized a correlation between the frequency of viewing crime programs and the extremity of scary world opinions among individuals who are high in NTE. While our reasoning was supported for crime drama exposure, the results for non-fiction were less clear. There was no evidence of a direct relationship between non-fiction viewing and scary world evaluations , nor was this relationship conditional upon respondents’ NTE. These findings may not be surprising, however, as non-fiction was operationalized as a general measure and may therefore not have reflected a well-defined meta-narrative: news and documentaries
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NEED TO EVALUATE MODERATES CULTIVATION EFFECTS 18 portray crime, but they often cover other topics as well. As studies that specifically assessed crime-related news exposure seem to report clearer cultivation patterns (e.g., Grabe & Drew, 2007, but see Gross & Aday, 2003, for no evidence of cultivation through general news viewing),
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