biosc writing origin of bipedalism

Kono scott w simpson berhane asfaw c owen lovejoy and

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Suwa, Gen, Reiko T. Kono, Scott W. Simpson, Berhane Asfaw, C. Owen Lovejoy, and Tim D. White. 2009b.  "Paleobiological Implications of the Ardipithecus Ramidus Dentition."  Science  326 (5949): 94-99.  White, Tim D., Berhane Asfaw, Yonas Beyene, Yohannes Haile-Selassie, C. Owen Lovejoy, Gen Suwa, and Giday  WoldeGabriel. 2009. "Ardipithecus Ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids."  Science  326 (5949): 75- 86.  Figures:
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O’Connor Figure 1: The lineage of hominins. This depicts the shared truncal morphology of panins and hominins. Thus, the two species close relatedness correlates directly with the difficulty in distinguishing fossils as existing within one lineage or the other. Figure 2: The morphology of panins (left) and hominins (right). For both skeletal depictions the letters represent the following, (a) lumbar vertebrae, (b) sacram, (c) ilium. The number of lumbar vertebrae are decreased within the panin in comparison to the hominin. Pan possesses a tightened sacral alae, that does not occur in the hominin. The lower ilium is
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O’Connor extended cranially within the panin due to craniocaudal differentiation. This ilium extension is not observed within the hominin. These morphological differences allow for bipedalism to not be feasible within the panin. Lovejoy, C. Owen, et al. Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus Ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking." Science 326 (5949). Figure 3: The original and reconstructed os coxa of Ar. ramidus On the left shows the original anterolateral and anteromedial views, with the bottom image being that of a close up of the AIIS. The middle shows the same views but with CT scans, and the bottom image is now a close up of the pubic symphyseal face. On the right are anterolateral and anteromedial views of the reconstructed os coxa. Lovejoy, C. Owen, et al. Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus Ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking." Science 326 (5949).
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O’Connor Figure 4: Images of the pelvis of Homo sapiens, Au. Afarensis, Ar. ramidus, P. troglodytes (left to right). All three hominid ilia are vertically short and horizontally broad in comparison to the Pan ilia. A greater sciatic notch and a novel growth site are formed (as shown by the arrows) in the three hominids. This characteristic is absent in Pan. Suwa Gen, et al. 2009a. "The Ardipithecus Ramidus Skull and its Implications for Hominid Origins." Science 326 (5949). Figure 5: The log cranial capacity versus the log cranial length are compared. Ar. ramidus was graphed using the body weight of about 50 kg and a total cranial length estimate of 162.5 mm. The African apes measured consist of Gorilla gorilla, P. troglodytes troglodytes, P. t. schweinfurth, and P. paniscus. Unfilled symbols represent males while the filled symbols represent females. It is shown that the Ar. ramidus cranial capacity is closest in similarity to African apes. .
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O’Connor
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