In other words economic development within the British imperialist system

In other words economic development within the

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who remained largely backward. In other words, "economic development within the British imperialist system benefited a group of Indians of whom a far larger proportion were Hindus than Muslims". (W.C. Smith, Modern Islam in India, 1946) Muslims, adapted later than Hindus to such British novelties as education, the new professions, posts in the administration, and culture. Consequently an intellectual awakening resulting in a re-assessment of the old beliefs, customs and values was also late among the Muslims, compared to Hindus. This time 'lag' between Ram Mohan Roy and Syed Ahmed Khan for instance, would help to explain, a feeling of weakness and insecurity on the part, of the Muslims, leading to a reliance on religion and traditional ways of thinking. This 'lag' theory i.e. the theory of a time lag between the Hindus and.Muslims in responding to the forces of modemisation and socio-economic development in the 19th century, has not been found to be wholly acceptable by recent historians. It should, therefore be taken with same reservations. One major reason is, its different application in different regions. If the Muslims as a group suffered in Bengal and as a result of the British rule, they benefited in some other parts like U.P. Still the 'lag' theory holds importance
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Nationalism: The Inter War for as it gives us a clue to the 20th century phenomenon of the Muslims' alienation from Years-I ) the national mainstream. The relationship of the lag theory with communalism was summed up very accurately by Jawaharlal Nehru in a letter to his friend, written in 1939. "After the Indian mutiny of 1857, there was a period of intense repression and both the Hindus and the Muslims suffered from it but the Muslims probably suffered more. Gradually people began to get over this suppression. The Hindus took to English education which led to state services much more than the Muslims. The Hindus also took the professions and to industry in large numbers. Among the Muslims, the reactionary elements, prevented the spread of modem education as well as industry. The Hindus developed a new middle class during this period, while the' Muslims still continued to remains largely feudal. The Hindu middle class laid the foundation of the nationalist movement, but about a generation later, the Muslims went the same way, took to English education and state service and professions and developed a new class also. A conflict arose between the various. middle class elements for state services and this was the beginning of the communal problem in its modem phase." Communalism in India was, therefore, a struggle for jobs between vaiious communities, unequal educationally, politically and economically. Historian K.B. Krishna (Problems of Minorities, 1939), one of the earliest scholars to'work on the communal problem felt that these struggles were accentuated in an epoch of the development of Indian capitalism, under feudal conditions, by British imperalism by its policy of counterpoise. It was therefore a product of inrperalist-capitalist-feudal structure of India. To quote K.B. Krishna: "History of the communal representation is the history of British policy in India,
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