Problems administer po4 hyperphosphatemia cause acute

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problems - administer PO4-; Hyperphosphatemia: Cause: acute or chronic renal failure, increased intake, lymphoblastic leukemias; Treatment - cause Lactate--- Bi-product of emergency mechanism that produces ATP when oxygen delivery is severely diminished (product of anaerobic metabolism); Used for metabolic monitoring of critically ill patients (have problems w/ oxygen carrying capacity– severity of illness – prognosis; RR – 0.5 – 2.2 mmol/L; Sodium fluoride or Na oxalate plasma – no tourniquet if possible (pressure on muscle will release more); Measurement: Enzymatic – colored dye reaction (colorimetric)
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5. Explain the Renin-Angiotensin regulation of blood volume. 6. Explain four additional mechanisms that affect blood volume besides the regulation of Na+ and water. 1) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), released from the myocardial atria in response to volume expansion, promotes Na + excretion in the kidney (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and ANP act together in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance) 2) Volume receptors independent of osmolality stimulate the release of AVP, which conserves water by renal reabsorption 3) Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases w/ the volume expansion and decrease w/ volume depletion 4) All other things equal, an increased plasma Na+ will increase urinary Na+ excretion and vice versa 7. Explain the regulation of Calcium absorption by PTH/Vitamin D/Calcitonin. PTH secretion is stimulated by a decrease in Ca and PTH secreation is stopped by an increase in Ca----in the bone PTH activates a process known as bone resorption in which activated osteoclasts break down bone and subsequently release Ca into the ECF----in the kidneys PTH conserves Ca by increasing tubular reabsorbtion of Ca---PTH also stimulates renal production of active vitamin D, the active form of vitamin D increases Ca absorption in the intestine and enhances the effect of PTH on bone resorption Calcitonin which orginates in the medullary cells of the thyroid gland, is secreted when the concentration of Ca in blood increases; Calcitonin exerts its Ca lowing effect by inhibiting the actions of both PTH and vitamin D; although calcitonin is not secreted during normal regulation of the ionized Ca concentration in blood, it is secreted in response to a hypercalcemic stimulus.
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