Processes of change in the modern world are so rapid

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gradually replaced religion as the basis of social cohesion. Processes of change in the modern world, are so rapid and intense, that they give rise to major social difficulties , which he linked to anomie, a feeling of aimlessness or (disappear) despair provoked by modern social life. Analysis of suicide. Showed that social factors exert fundamental influence or suicidal behavior .Believed that we must study social life with the same objectivity as scientist study natural world 7,Examine one of Durkheim’s most famous studies concerned with the analysis of suicide. Suicide is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim . It was the first methodological study of a social fact in the context of society. In his view, suicide comes in four kinds: Egoistic suicide reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community Altruistic suicide is characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group's goals and beliefs Anomic suicide reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval Fatalistic suicide occurs when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline Durkheim concluded that: · Suicide rates are higher in men than women (although married women who remained childless for a number of years ended up with a high suicide rate). · for those who are single than those who are in a sexual relationship. · for people without children than people with children. · among Protestants than Catholics and Jews. · among soldiers than civilians. · in times of peace than in times of war. (For example, the suicide rate in France fell after the coup d'etat of Louis- Napoléon Bonaparte . War also reduced the suicide rate: after war broke out in 1866 between Austria and Italy, the suicide rate fell by 14 per cent in both countries.) · The higher the education level, the more likely it was that an individual would choose suicide. However, Durkheim established that there is more correlation between an individual's religion and suicide rate than an individual's education level. Jewish people were generally highly educated but had a low suicide rate. 8. Conflicts between classes – the rich versus poor – provide the motivation for historical development. Consider this Marx’s idea. The class struggle is a conflict between new productive forces and outdated production relations, which ends with a social revolution. Class struggle exists in three forms: economic, political, ideological. The class struggle is an expression of the opposite interests of the classes of society. At the same time, the objective result of the struggle between classes is to bring
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production relations in line with the level of development of the constantly changing productive forces of society.
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