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oLow level of job involvement Job involvement= the degree to which people identify themselves with their jobs. oLow level of organization commitment Organizational commitment= the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization and is willing to put forth effort on its behalf. The key driving force behind all the different forms of job withdrawal is job satisfaction. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door Emilie Spaan ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|1748678
Job satisfaction= a pleasurable feeling that results from the perception that one’s job fulfills or allows for the fulfillment of one’s important job values.Three important aspects of job satisfaction: xValues= what a person consciously or unconsciously desires to obtain. xThis definition emphasizes that different employees have different views of which values are important, and this is critical in determining the nature and degree of their job satisfaction. xPerception. An individual’s perceptions may not be a completely accurate reflection of reality, and different people may view the same situation differently. People are often strongly influenced by their frame of reference. Frame of reference= a standard point that serves as a comparison for other points and thus provides meaning. Sources of job dissatisfaction: xUnsafe working conditions xPersonal dispositions (=aard) Turnover is more likely to be an issue for employees who are low in emotional stability, low in conscientiousness, and low in agreeableness. Negative affectivity(=hartstochtelijkheid) = a dispositional dimension that reflects pervasive (=doordringend) individual differences in satisfaction with any and all aspects of life. Individuals who are high in negative affectivity report higher levels of aversive (=afkerig van) mood states, including anger, contempt (=minachtig), disgust (=walging), guilt (=schuld), fear, and nervousness across all contexts. People who are high in negative affectivity tend to focus extensively on the negative aspects of themselves and others. xTasks and roles Primary aspects of tasks that affect job satisfaction: oComplexity of the task oAmount of flexibility in where and when the work is done oThe value the employee puts on the task One of the major interventions aimed at reducing job dissatisfaction by increasing job complexity is job enrichment. In some cases, job enrichment programs may have to be complemented with training programs to ensure people have the skills to expand their jobs. Skills training gives job incumbents the ability to better predict, understand, and control events occurring on the job, which in turn increases their ability to make their own decisions. Another task-based intervention is job rotation. Job rotation= the process of systematically moving a single individual from one job to another over the course of time. The job assignments may be in various functional areas of the company or movement may be between jobs in a single functional area or department.