Charismatic 2 513 054 005 085 p 001 36 E C akmak et al level effect size was

Charismatic 2 513 054 005 085 p 001 36 e c akmak et

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Charismatic 2 513 0.54 ± 0.05 0.85 * p < 0.01 36 E. C ¸ akmak et al.
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level effect size was found for education sector employees [ r ¼ 0.46] and service sector employees [ r ¼ 0.48], and the level was high for security sector employees [ r ¼ 0.58] and health sector employees [ r ¼ 0.52]. The effect size of leadership on job satisfaction for employees of the sporting sector was not found to be significant. The findings supported H 5 , i.e., that leadership style/approach played a moder- ating role in the effect leadership has on job satisfaction. According to the findings of the moderator analysis, the difference between the effect size of leadership styles was statistically significant (Q b ¼ 30.76, p < 0.05). The most effective leadership styles/approaches regarding job satisfaction in the research studies included in the meta-analysis were found to be, respectively, leadership skills [ r ¼ 0.81], servant leadership [ r ¼ 0.73], authentic leadership [ r ¼ 0.53], leadership practices [ r ¼ 0.51], participatory leadership [ r ¼ 0.50], transformational leadership [ r ¼ 0.49] and leadership behaviors [ r ¼ 0.44]. Conclusion A total of 318 research studies were included in this meta-analysis study to examine the magnitude of the effect of leadership on job satisfaction. Publi- cation type, year of publication, sample group/sector and leadership style/ approach were considered as moderator variables in the study. The results of the meta-analysis found a medium-level effect of leadership on job satisfac- tion. This finding is in parallel with studies that have found that leadership leads to an increase in employees performance (Goleman, 2002 ; Locke & Latham, 1990 ; Petty, McGee, & Cavender, 1984 ) by increasing their moti- vation (Burns, 2007 ) and, in turn, increasing their job satisfaction (Kouzes & Posner, 2002 ). The finding that there is a significant positive relationship between leadership and job satisfaction is congruent with the findings of many other studies (Brown, 1989 ; Chen, 2005a , 2005b ; Madlock, 2008 ; Parkinson, 2008 ; Shieh, 1996 ; Temple, 2009 ; Walumbwa, 2002 ). The findings of the moderator variable analyses conducted for the sample groups used by the studies did not find a statistically significant difference between sample groups. However, it was found that the strongest effect among sample groups was for the security sector group, which includes soldiers and police officers, whereas the weakest effect was found for the education sector. Because soldiers must always be ready for the breakout of war and are expected to defend the country with a minimum number of soldiers, they are in need of a leader to keep them motivated (Department of the Army, 1999 ). A similar situation is the case for police officers. In addition to the significant effect police leaders have on the beliefs, values and actions of police officers (Friedmann, 1992 ), it was also seen that police leaders have an effect on a series of attitudes (e.g., interpretation of legisla- tion, degree of support, and supervision; Tang & Hammontree, 1992 ) that affect job satisfaction.
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