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Participants whose parents were both of Hawaiian ancestry scored higher on Hawaiian culture measures than those with only one parent of Hawaiian ancestry. Our results are consistent with Root’s qualitative data reported in Love’s Revolution (Root, 2001), which strongly suggests equal influences of two interracial partners on child socialization. There are several study limitations. The nonresponse rate was 40% of the total student enrollment. Information on nonrespondents indicated that these indi-viduals tended to be male, have lower grade point averages, and have higher rates of absences, suspensions, and school infractions. There are also limitations associ-ated with measuring Hawaiian cultural identity. Although the HCS was validated with this sample (see Hishinuma et al., 2000, for the psychometric properties of the HCS), the majority of Hawaiians are of mixed ancestry. There is evidence that bicultural individuals, those who identify with their own and other cultures, manifest healthy outcomes (Farver et al., 2002). Further research is needed that explores cultural identification as a multidimensional and dynamic construct and how mothers, fathers, extended family, and important persons contribute to identity formation. Finally, the data were collected more than a decade ago during the 1993–1994 school year. Since then, there has been tremendous activity in the areas of recog-nizing the importance and contributions of fathers (e.g., “Inspiring Father’s Conference” in Honolulu, Hawaiÿi, April 2006; the Hawaiÿi Coalition for Dads; the National Fatherhood Initiative) and Hawaiian cultural transmission through larger social institutions (e.g., Hawaiian-focused charter schools, Hawaiian language immersion); Hawaiian identity as a complex process that weaves together physical and spiritual realms, genealogy, and sociopolitical ties to the land and sea (Kanaÿiaupuni & Malone, 2006); and Hawaiian identity as being influenced by external forces that do not share common interests of indigenous peoples (Halualani, 2002). The higher level of male involvement in conveying traditional activities to children demonstrates traditional familial roles, in which mothers pass on more domestic and behavioral lessons of the culture and fathers teach cultural activities, generally outside of the home. Perhaps the most important message to Hawaiian commu-103
Hülili Vol.4 No.1 (2007) nities is that fathers are as important as mothers in learning to understand and follow traditional Hawaiian ways and that extended family members are valuable teachers as well. Mothers, fathers, and other family members have powerful roles in conveying Hawaiian culture that help children develop a sense of self-identity within society and help children maintain a sense of psychological well-being.