Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 9.doc

C the persuader will connect the evidence to the

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c. The persuader will connect the evidence to the persuasive conclusion by using such words as thus, hence, and therefore. d. The underlying assumption of this style is that if the idea is “true,” it simply needs to be presented in a logical way so that its truthfulness becomes apparent to all. 2. The presentational style emphasizes and appeals to the emotional aspects of persuasion. a. People, rather than the idea itself, are what make an idea persuasive. b. An immutable truth does not exist, and there are no clear rights or wrongs to be discovered. c. Ideas themselves are not inherently persuasive; what makes them compelling is how they are presented to others. d. The persuader uses language to create an emotional response by using the rhythmic qualities of words to move the audience visually and auditorily. e. The language of this style of persuasion is filled with sensory words that induce the listener to look, see, hear, feel, and ultimately believe. 3. The analogical style seeks to establish an idea (a conclusion) and to persuade the listener by providing an analogy, a story, or a parable in which there is either an implicit or explicit lesson to be learned. a. The collective experience of groups of people – the culture – is persuasive, rather than the ideas themselves or the characteristics of a dynamic individual. b. Historical precedent takes on great importance; what convinces us is a persuader’s ability to choose the right historical story to demonstrate the point. c. Skill in persuasion is associated with the discovery and narration of the appropriate story – a story that captures the essence of what the persuader wants the listeners to know. Read This: Read This: 6
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How Oogway in Kunfu Panda argues with analogies and indirectness. Oogway: My friend, the panda will never fulfill his destiny, nor you yours until you let go of the illusion of control. Shifu: Illusion? Oogway: Yes. [points at peach tree] Oogway: Look at this tree, Shifu: I cannot make it blossom when it suits me nor make it bear fruit before its time. Shifu: But there are things we *can* control: I can control when the fruit will fall, I can control where to plant the seed: that is no illusion, Master! Oogway: Ah, yes. But no matter what you do, that seed will grow to be a peach tree. You may wish for an apple or an orange, but you will get a peach. Shifu: But a peach cannot defeat Tai Lung! Oogway: Maybe it can, if you are willing to guide, to nurture it, to believe in it. Shifu: But how? How? I need your help, master. Oogway: No, you just need to believe. Promise me, Shifu, promise me you will believe. III. Cultural Variations in the Structure of Conversations A. Value of Talk and Silence 1. Among African Americans and European Americans, words are all-important ways of communicating.
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