8.Random selection of 300 subjects yields a sample, but demographic analysis of that sample reveals that there are 99 teachers in the sample, despite the fact that there are far fewer than 33% teachers in the total sample. The sample can be said to be a.Biasedb.Controlledc.Multicausald.Based on probabilityANS:AThe term bias means to slant away from the true or expected. A biased sample’s composition differs from that of the population from which the sample was drawn. Bias is of great concern in research because of the potential effect on the meaning of the studyfindings.Multicausality refers to a scenario in which interrelating variables cause a particular effect Control means having the power to direct or manipulate factors to achieve a desired outcome. Error is often discussed in relation to the researchers ability tomake accurate conclusions. Probability addresses relative, rather than absolute, causality. From the perspective of probability, a cause will not produce a specific effect each time that particular cause occurs. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 197 9.The researcher divides his lab rats into two groups and administers IV methamphetamine to one of the groups, in order to determine its effect on the fear-flight response. This is an example of which of the following? DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 197 10.A researcher is comparing a new and less expensive treatment with an established treatment, in hopes of showing that there is no difference in outcome. The researcher does not perform a power analysis and, consequently, selects a sample size that is smaller than what would be recommended for an analysis of variance. The results show that there is no significant difference inoutcome between the two treatments. Which type of validity is affected by this?
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