In other words, people's motivation results from a ratio of ratios: a person compares the ratio of reward to effort with the comparable ratio of reward to effort that they think others are getting. Of course, in terms of actually predicting how a person will react to a given motivator, this will get pretty complicated:1.People do not have complete information about how others are rewarded. So they are going on perceptions, rumors, inferences. 2.Some people are more sensitive to equity issues than others 3.Some people are willing to ignore short-term inequities as long as they expect things to work out in the long-term. Reinforcement TheoryOperant Conditioningis the term used by B.F. Skinnerto describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. There arefour types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction weaken behavior.Positive reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion. Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a consequence of a behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when youmake first big sale. Extinction. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, they stop doing it. Punishment. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting a punishment asa consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay docked for lateness. ApplyWithholdRewardpositive reinforcement negative reinforcement
(raise above baseline)(raise up to baseline)Stressorpunishment (bring down below baseline)extinction (stay at baseline)Reinforcement schedules. The traditional reinforcement schedule is called a continuous reinforcement schedule.Each time the correct behavior is performed it gets reinforced.Then there is what we call an intermittent reinforcement schedule. There are fixed and variable categories.The Fixed Interval Scheduleis where reinforcement is only given after a certain amount of time has elapsed. So, if you decided on a 5 second interval then each reinforcement would occur at the fixed time of every 5 seconds.The Fixed Ratio Schedule is where the reinforcement is given only after a predeterminednumber of responses. This is often seen in behavior chains where a number of behaviors have to occur for reinforcement to occur.
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- Fall '15
- Douglas McGregor