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Other simple carbohydrate intolerances: Sugar alcohols: Lactitol, mannitol, glucitol These are quite widely used these days to make processed foods, for example in gum. Why are these used?Unlike sugar, they don’t give rise to cavities. Bacteria in our teeth do not like these substitutes and they can’t metabolize them. They don’t produce any acids that normally eat away the enamel. They are also lower in calories because they are not very well absorbed Ex: xylitol) Side effect: Because they are not properly absorbed in the small intestine and gets into the large intestine, the body tries to wash it out , and of course the body’s mechanism for washing these things out is to produce diarrhea. The same sugars can, in fact, be used to cause laxation. 3.Favism Fava beans. In a rare genetic situation, some people who eat fava beans will suffer from something called hemolytic anemia, which is an abnormal breakdown of red blood cells. Once again, this is an enzyme deficiency; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Symptoms
CHEM 181 Winter 2019 Malka A-r 145 -Fatigues -Shortness of breath -Headache -Nausea -Vomiting -Fever It often takes years until a proper diagnosis is made. Historically, the most famous sufferer of hemolytic anemia was Pythagoras. This guy said “fava absentee” –stay away from beans. it has been interpreted that he suffered from favism, although there’s also a school of thought that believed that Pythagoras was just warning us against eating bean because of the flatulation that they would cause. Video 5 4.Celiac Disease Gluten sensitivity is very much in the news these days because of its connection to celiac disease but also to some other ailments known as non-celiac sensitivity to gluten. Wheat is ground up into flour- a very common commodity, but in some people, it can give rise to a very serious condition called celiac disease This was first described way back in 1888 by Samuel Gee who noted that children sometime suffered from bloated stomachs and diarrhea and they had stunted growth. He referred to this condition as celiac disease. What it was caused by was largely unknown until the Second World War, when a Dutch physicist, Willem Dicke, came to a fascinating conclusion. During the second world war, the Germans tried to starve the Dutch, and they cut off shipments of food supply, including wheat. Since there was no wheat, and thus no bread, people had to resort to vegetable and other grains in the diet. In 1950, he proposed that an unknown constituent of the diet was damaging the intestines of celiac patients. Dicke noticed that his patients who had been suffering from celiac disease got better when the supply of wheat was cut off. He concluded that this damage was caused by wheat. Today, we understand what it has to do with wheat. Wheat contains a family of proteins that collectively we call gluten.