McNamara,Rewriting Zapata Generational Conflict.pdf

With young children were either led by single mothers

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with young children were either led by single mothers or mothers whose partners had left to find work outside of Anenecuilco. Lacking comparative data for other rural communities, it is difficult to know if 30 percent is high or low. My sense is that it is high, especially because - system or resorted by the archivists chronologically. In this schema, the 1907 docu- ment should be located much earlier in the collection, in the range of documents 5255–7064. Many documents have numbers written in pencil on the upper-right cor- ner of the first page. Archivists wrote these marks to match letters sent to D´ ıaz with correspondence sent by him. This series of numbers correspond most closely to docu- ments in a single archive box and range typically between 1 and 90 and then repeat. The 1907 letter has ‘‘36’’ written on the upper corner. No matching document marked 36 is near this letter, which suggests that if D´ ıaz answered this letter, the response is not in the CPD collection or remains hidden among the vast collection of documents that have not been indexed. 16. Hart, Bitter Harvest, 151, 225. 17. Ibid, 225–226. 18. Ibid, 151. 19. Luna, ‘‘Padr´on escolar del an ˜o del 1898 [November 18], Anenecuilcayotl , 127–129. 130 Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos This content downloaded from 73.244.149.220 on Mon, 08 Oct 2018 22:59:15 UTC All use subject to
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these were families with relatively young children. In any case, female- headed households faced greater challenges for providing enough food and income for families, unless their partners were sending money. In addition, all of the female-headed households lacked direct access to communal power. They could rely on male relatives—fathers, uncles, and brothers—but their own households lacked a specific voice at important town meetings in which only men participated. A few of the fathers listed in the 1898 census had become leaders of the community by the end of the century. Jos´e Merino, for exam- ple, had two daughters in school, Nicolosa and Alberta. Merino became town president and eventually handed over that office to his nephew, Emiliano Zapata, in 1909. Along with Merino, Luciano Cab- rera, Tom´ as Garc´ ıa, Ram´on Guti´errez, Andr´es Montes, Eugenio P´erez, Carmen Quintero, Avelino Salamanca, and Toribio Vidal kept alive ‘‘the spirit of resistance’’ in Anenecuilco. 20 This group wrote peti- tions, pressured the administrators of the Hacienda Hospital, and encouraged the rest of the community to remain hopeful despite the long struggle. These names are important because they identify a gen- eration of leaders guiding the community prior to younger men assuming those offices in 1909. These names also begin the process of carefully identifying individual actors within the community. In order to understand the proposal to relocate in 1907, we need to pay special attention to those who signed the letter and those who did not.
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  • Spring '14
  • AnitaC.Pritchard
  • The Bible, Emiliano Zapata, ‘‘Emiliano Zapata

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