Further away from the surface convection latent heat

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further away from the surface (CONVECTION) Latent heat:  heat absorbed or released as substances change from one  phase to another o Also known as hidden heat; cannot be measured by a thermometer o Stored as molecular motion o To change the phase of water from solid to liquid or from liquid to  gas, energy needs to be added to the water, which breaks the  attractive bonds between the water molecules and allows them to  move free of the surrounding water molecules
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o This latent heat is stored in the form of the fast random motion of  the freely moving water vapor molecules in the gaseous state as  compared with the relatively slower motions of the molecules in  either the liquid or solid state o Also works in reverse; when water vapor turns back to a liquid or  solid, the fast motion is released and the molecules return to the  relatively slower motions. The latent heat released can then go to  warming the surround air molecules, increasing their temperatures.  o In the Earth-atmosphere system, latent heat transfer to the  atmosphere occurs when water from a moist land surface or from  open water evaporates.  This latent heat is not released until the water recondenses,  which can occur far from where it evaporated Phase:  the state of a substance: either solid, liquid, or gas Diffuse radiation:  scattered radiation moving in all directions through the  atmosphere  o Some radiation flows down to the Earth’s surface while some flows  upward.  o This upward flow amounts to about 3% of incoming solar radiation if  no clouds are present Albedo:  proportion of solar radiation reflected upward from a surface  o Lighter things (white clouds, snow, etc.) have a higher albedo and  are able to reflect radiation better o Black (pavement) has a low albedo, and absorbs almost all of the  incoming solar energy.  o Surface temperatures are warmer for low albedo (due to  absorption) o When the Sun shines on a water surface at a low angle, much of  the radiation is directly reflected as sun glint, producing a higher  albedo. o Fields, forests and bare ground have intermediate albedos.  Counterradiation:  longwave atmospheric radiation moving downward  toward the Earth’s surface
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