Not all of these political system survived the

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Not all of these political system survived the tumultuous 1950s and 1960s, when the post-colonial instability that affected msotly newly independent countries in Africa and Asia was compounded by the effects of new Arab nationalism, Western tensions and Arab-Israeli conflict. Oman:country faced challenges from the Dhofar rebellion that eventually defeated the British, Jordanian and Iranian but also due to the modernizing reforms undertaken by Sultan Said
The introduction of reforms followed the accession to power of new monarchs intent on distinguishing their rule as being more modern or liberal than that of their fathers - for example Mohammad VI of Morocco. In the 1980s and 1990s:a number of monarchial regimes embarked on limited processes of political liberalization, generally in response to a confluence of both internal and external forces. Jordan:External pressures asa result of the country's declining foreign and and remittances and growing debt resulted in the adoption of structural adjustment programs (which involved heavy austerity measures) that proved a wave of protests in 1989. The charter gave Jordanian leaders a sense of direction, an insurance policy against outbidding by unrestrained groups and a degree of predictability in political affairs. The National Charter along with the Jordanian Constitutionprovides a compass for the national debate on fundamental issues. Post-1989 reforms in Jordan were far more limited process of political liberalization than a thoroughgoing democratization. While the monarchy continued to wield pre-eminent constitutional power, and with patronage and other forms of political control used variously co-opt and discourage certain types of political activism or discourse. Kuwait:Demands for reactivation of the National Assembly were strengthened by the effects of Iraq's 1990-91 occupation of the country. Parliaments in Kuwait have seen a higher proportion of liberal, nationalist, and independent opposition figures elected also have seen the National Assembly willing to challenge some of the royal pejoratives. The emir dissolved the National Assembly early after elections in 2009 due to tensions over political accountability and other issues. Bahrain:The partially elected National Assembly called for the constitution to be suspended.The Shi'ite opposition party al-Wifaq did well in the 2006 and 2010 elections despite government harassment, parliament had little substantial effect on public policymaking.the Shi'ite majority in the country continue to feel marginalized - led to protests in 2011 .Qatar:Shaikh Hamad promised significant reforms including a new constitution that was drawn up and approved by referendum in 2003.This despite the kingdom's sometimes overt disapproval of Kuwait's renewal of parliamentary life.

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