Government specialists help count thing and keep

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Government specialists help count thing and keep track of informationoSystem of recording informationWriting Incas used a series of knotted string called knipuSophisticated ArtoSophisticated art stylesoHighly problematic and should probably should be removed from the listSubjective- what is “sophisticated”
ASB 222 Exam 3 Review Poor differentiatorExamples: two from early states, one from tribal societyPrimary vs, Secondary StatesoPrimary StatesThe earliest states to develop in an areaMade the transition to states through independent processesoSecondary StatesDeveloped later, through contact with existing statesMany were formed when states and empires expandedSome conquered and became parts of empireOthers developed state institutions in order to deal with expanding statesEx. Nubian state (king of Kush) emerged in response to interaction with Egyptians Area of Primary State DevelopmentoAztec, Rome, Incas- secondary statesoStates are much older in the old world then they are in the new world Social Differentiation at CahokiaoSpecialistsShell-working, astronmersoElitesElevated residencesExclusive ceramic style- Ramey Incused vesselsDiet- more meatBurial MoundsExotic grave goods (more than commoners)Especially shells20,000 marine shell beads in Mound 72 (display of social power) oWooden PalisadeoSacrifices in Mound 72?Four mass graves with total of 270+ individuals Nonelite ResidencesoThatch structures at ground leveloFamily compounds including living quarters, storage and buildings and work areas Long Distance Trade in Exotic GoodsoSome sea shells came from over 1000 miles awayoHigh status Cahokian pottery found at sites in Wisconsin, Ohio, and MississippioExotic goods not only for elitesCommoners access to exotic goods increased over time Decline of CahokiaoAd 1200 people began leaving the cityoAD 1300s Cahokia was abandonedoWHY?oDepleted resources
ASB 222 Exam 3 Review Flooding (after AD 1200) and crop failureSoil erosion caused by depletion of forests for building and/or clearing for agricultural productionoHealthInfectious diseases spread due to dense livingMalnutrition due to maize-base dietoSociopolitical factorsoAD 1100-1200oSociocultural changes suggestive of attempts by elites to consolidate and increase powerRamey incised pottery appears for the first time- represents diving chieftainshipReplacement of commoner houses by platform moundsConstruction of palisadeWalls with “guard” towersoFractional opposition against efforts at centralized controloIncreasing commoner resentmentoSocial unrest- people moved away. (This lead to resentment for the people that were none elites)Why Don’t We Consider Cahokia a State?o“Great chiefdom” of Cahokia. We refer to it as a Great ChiefdomoNo centralized governmentoShared goals of elites and commoners in social and ideological developments at Cahokia,not elite coercionPopulation increased because people wanted to participate in mound building

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