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8 describe organizational factors that might

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8.Describe organizational factors that might constrain decision makers.10
Organizational decisions are those which managers undertake under certainconditions relating to that organization. Sometimes these decisions are takenindependently or by a group of managers and employees. Whenever we makedecisions a number of factors will affect it. This research paper will discuss someof those constrains which will be organized as follows:1.Perception issues: is which by how individuals understand theirenvironment, and it can be influenced by:(a) The perceiver which interact with the personal characteristics that canaffect an individual's perception including their background andexperience, personal values, expectations and interests.(b) The situations like time and location. For example, a manager maynotice an employee who works late and got a positive perception abouthim at that same evenings or vice versa.(c) The object which may refer to any person, item or an event. Cause italso impact the way we perceive. For example, when a manager has anumber of reports to read, he will be more motivated to read the onewith the most colorful cover compared to the plane one.2.Policies and Procedures: Many organizations have their own policies andprocedures which have been developed to resolve common problems andto guide managers when making decisions. For instance, manyorganizations have documented disciplinary procedures which guidemanagers through a process of resolving issues with staff members.3.Organizational Pyramid: Most organizations have different levels ofmanagement which by assigning them different degrees of authority. Thedegree of authority will impact on the nature of the decisions a managercan make. For example, a human resource manager cannot makedecisions about the overall goals of the organization. However, he canmake decisions about whether the organization need more employees ornot.4.Organizational Politics: which refers to the behavior displayed byindividuals and groups which is designed to influence others. Individualsand teams will often use politics to:(a) Advance their careers(b) Advance their interests and ideas11
(c) Increase their rewards.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Salbiah
Tags
Decision Making, John Neill

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