We need courage to be true to our own thinking in

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falsity in some ideas strongly held in our social group. We need courage to be true to our  own thinking in such circumstances. The penalties for non-conformity can be severe. Intellectual Empathy :  Having the knowledge of the need to imaginatively put oneself in  the place of others in order to genuinely understand them, this requires the consciousness of our egocentric tendency to identify truth with our immediate perceptions of long-standing  thought or belief. This trait correlates with the ability to reconstruct accurately the viewpoints  and reasoning of others and to reason from premises, assumptions, and ideas other than our own. This trait also correlates with the willingness to remember occasions when we were  wrong in the past despite an intense conviction that we were right, and with the ability to  imagine our being similarly deceived in a case-at-hand. Intellectual Integrity :  Recognition of the need to be true to one's own thinking; to be  consistent in the intellectual standards one applies; to hold one's self to the same rigorous  standards of evidence and proof to which one holds one's antagonists; to practice what one  advocates for others; and to honestly admit discrepancies and inconsistencies in one's own  thought and action. Intellectual Perseverance :  Having the knowledge of the need to use intellectual insights  and truths in spite of difficulties, obstacles, and frustrations; firm adherence to rational  principles despite the irrational opposition of others; a sense of the need to struggle with  confusion and unsettled questions over an extended period of time to achieve deeper  understanding or insight. Faith In Reason :  Confidence that, in the long run, one's own higher interests and those of humankind at large will be best served by giving the freest play to reason, by encouraging  people to come to their own conclusions by developing their own rational faculties; faith that,  with proper encouragement and cultivation, people can learn to think for themselves, to form  rational viewpoints, draw reasonable conclusions, think coherently and logically, persuade  each other by reason and become reasonable persons, despite the deep-seated obstacles in the native character of the human mind and in society as we know it. Fairmindedness :  Having the knowledge of the need to treat all viewpoints alike, without  reference to one's own feelings or vested interests, or the feelings or vested interests of  one's friends, community or nation; implies adherence to intellectual standards without  reference to one's own advantage or the advantage of one's group.
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