Poverty is an obstacle where people have little they

This preview shows page 23 - 26 out of 67 pages.

Poverty is an obstacle- where people have little, they have little to fight forCivil society- organized life outside the statesModernization can be the result of foreign investment, globalization, and trade. Institutions of the Democratic StateExecutive- the branch that carries out the laws and policies of a state
Exam 222:29Head of state- symbolizes and represents the people, both nationally and internationally, embodying and articulating the goals of the regimeRole of foreign policy or war makingHead of government- deal with the everyday tasks of running the state, such as formulating and executing policy, alongside a cabinet of other ministers who are charged with specific policy areasLegislature- the body in which national politics is considered and debated; it is charged with making or at least passing legislationBicameral systems- 2 houses in the legislatureMajority of liberal democraciesUnicameral systems- 1 house in the legislatureThe rule of law- the sovereignty of law over the people and elected officialsConstitutional court- ensures that legislation is compatible with the constitutionJudicial review-Concrete review- courts can consider the constitutionality of legislation only when this question has been triggered by a court caseAbstract review- a constitutional court may rule on legislation without a court case and been before that law has been exercised. Models of democracy: parliamentary, presidential and semi-presidential systemsParliamentary systems- the prime minister is elected from legislature and therefore reflects the balance of power between partiesBenefits- prime minister has confidence that s/he can get legislation passes. They may also be more easily removed by the legislature through a vote of no confidenceDrawbacks: public does not directly select prime minister and feels that it has less control over the executive and the passing of legislationVote of no confidence- parliaments have the right to dismiss a prime minister at any time simply by taking this voteThe absence of the majority support will bring down the governmentPresidential systems- the president and legislature serve for fixed terms (4-7 years)Benefits- president is directly elected and can draw on a national mandate to create and enact legislationDrawbacks- president and legislature may be controlled by different parties (divided government). Office does not allow for power sharing and president may not be easily removed from office
Exam 222:29Semi-presidential systems- presidents will often set forth policy but expect the prime minister to translate those policy ideas into legislation and ensure that they are passedBenefits- directly elected president and indirectly elected prime minister share power and responsibilities, creating both a public mandate (presidency) and an indirectly elected office that may be supported by a coalition of parties (prime minister). Political partiesEncourage democratic competition by articulating broader coalitions while simultaneously

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture