midterm review - final copy

Bourgeois women and children were to be shielded from

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bourgeois women and children were to be shielded from the public sphere 10. shift from a religious to a scientific worldview ever since the Enlightenment, science had been challenging religion as the predominant way of knowing truth about the world in the 19 th century, many in the newly ascendant bourgeoisie threw their weight behind science doctors, who saw themselves as scientists, began to take over care of human well-being from priests and ministers
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Week 4 sexuality would be in the domain of science, not religion the law would look to doctors for expert opinion 11. publication of Origin of Species (1859) written by British naturalist Charles Darwin decisive challenge to Christian worldview man not created by God but by nature 12. pre-Freudian medicalization of sexuality (1865-1900) most early sexologists were medical doctors no concept of the unconscious Christian morality transferred into the new framework o normal, healthy sexuality was moderate married intercourse o everything else was “abnormal” or “sick” treatment- containment via marriage, or neutralization of drives (cold showers, vegetarianism, castration, clitoridectomy) underlying analogies (1) machine the human body is like a machine; there are fixed inputs and outputs human energy is limited; energy put into sexuality can’t go to other organs masturbation and all sexual activity diverts energy from mental and other functions (2) economy in industrial production-oriented capitalism, saving and investment were highly desirable saving sexual energy by abstaining, and investing sexual energy in mental, creative, reproductive and work functions was vitally important orgasm was called “spending”
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Week 4 too much spending either in the economy or sexually could lead to scarcity and ruin 13. Dr. William Acton, The Functions and Diseases of the Reproductive Organs (1857) audience was exclusively upper and middle class men subject of the book was male sexuality control of masturbation; male disease of spermatorrhea o total ignorance of any sexual affection should be the rule o the normal woman is asexual categorized women’s sexuality by socio-economic class “low and vulgar” working class women are sexual o Victorians saw prostitutes, lesbians, and “hysterics” as similar because they were associated with non-procreative sexuality hysteria thought to be caused by a displaced uterus 14. Dr. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) German physician written in Latin, so uneducated people were unable to read it similar assumptions to Acton about vast differences between men and women, and about the narrow range of sexuality that was normal and healthy his concern was the classification of sexual “perverts” o inversion (trapped soul theory) o necrophilia o fetishisms Krafft Ebing was somewhat sympathetic to “victims” of perversion, which he considered the result of hereditary flaws
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