•High risk group to commit acts of violence, both in and outside of prison.•Psychopathic violence tends to be dispassionate, cold-blooded, predatory, instrumental, or sadistic.•Violence is motivated by revenge, monetary gain, or sadism •More likely to have male & stranger victims. Recidivism Predictive Accuracy of PCL-R: Results from Meta-analysesTreatment of Psychopathy Evidence, Issues, and ControversiesTherapeutic PessimismCleckley, 1941“…we do not at present have any kind of psychotherapy that can be relied upon to change thepsychopath fundamentally.” p 438-439Suedfeld & Landon, 1978‘‘review of the literature suggests that a chapter on effective treatment should be the shortest in any book concerned with psychopathy. In fact, it has been suggested that one sentence would suffice: No demonstrably effective treatment has been found’’ (p. 347)Harris & Rice, 2006‘‘…no effective interventions yet exist for psychopaths. Indeed, some treatments that are effective for nonpsychopaths actually increase the risk of represented by psychopaths.’’ (p. 563 in Patrick, 2006 Ed.). Therapeutic Community (TC) Treatment and Violent Recidivism (Rice et al., 1992)- services made it worse for people“The present results strongly suggest that the kind of therapeutic community described in this article is the wrong program for serious psychopathic offenders”.Rice, Harris, Cormier, 1992, p. 408.“At a practical level, the treatment of psychopaths has an interesting history, short on quantity and long on lore… Close examination of the treatment studies of psychopaths shows that most treatment efforts have failed to attend to the principles of effective correctional interventions”Simourd & Hoge (2000, p. 269)Quantitative Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy
PSY 230.3 (02) Dr. M. Olver 7•Salekin (2002)•Meta-analysis of 42 treatment studies on psychopathy•Few empirical investigations & fewer follow up studies•Provided some evidence of positive txt effects: •“60% of patients benefitted from therapy”•Some methodological issues (Harris & Rice, 2006)•“little scientific basis for the belief that psychopathy is an untreatabledisorder” (p. 79)Why have earlier studies producednegative outcomes?Characteristics of Ineffective Programs?•Little or no staff supervision–Put psychopathic men in charge of running programs•Over-treating the offenders•Mixing high and low riskoffenders•Failure to target criminogenic needs•Inappropriate therapeutic foci •Unresponsive interventions–Nude encounter groups–LSD used to reduce defensivenessQuantitative Evaluation of Treatment EfficacySalekin et al., 2010•Updated 2002 meta-analysis – added 9 new studies•Much improved study designs and intervention–Structured risk/psychopathy assessment & outcome evaluation, use RNR principles–Long term follow up •Some with positive treatment effects •Reduction in violence and reoffending with treatment.