E moves though pi etc to protein ferredoxin fd no h

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E- moves though PI ETC to protein ferredoxin (Fd) No H+ gradient generated, no ATP produced o NADPH Synthesis E- transferred to NADP+ NADPH synthesized, released into stroma Calvin cycle Catalyzed by NADP+ reductase o Cyclic e- Flow Light dependent Uses only PSI Produces only ATP 16
Only photosystem I involved P700 absorbs photon, e- primary acceptor PSII ETC back to P700 Generates H+ gradient ATP synthesis – no NADPH or O2 results Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria (Fig 10.18) C. Carbon Fixation Reactions Carbon fixation equation: 6CO 2 + 12NADPH + 18ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 12NADP + +18ADP + 8P i + 6H 2 O Calvin Cycle (C3 Cycle) o Carbon fixation method used by most plants o In stroma o Does not need direct light, but indirectly requires ATP and NADPH from light-dependent reaction o 13 rx’s each catalyzed by diff. enzyme o 3 phases: carbon fixation, reduction, RuBP regeneration 1 st phase : carbon fixation CO2 + ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP, 5C) Rubisco unstable 6C compound 2x 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) 2 nd & 3 rd phases : reduction and RuBP regeneration PGA convert to G3P – Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate create sugar or RuBP 17
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LECTURE 11: THE CELL CYCLE I. Organization of cellular Genetic Material II. The Cell Cycle I. Organization of Genetic Material A. Introduction Cell theory: all living things are made of one or more cells Basic organization and fx unit of all organisms All cells come from other cells Some Terminally differentiated : do not divide o Ex: erythrocyte, neurons Cell division = cell reproduction o Unicellular organisms – just reproduction o Multicellular organisms – 2 fx’s Growth and development Renewal and repair after fully growth o During cell division All parts of cell divided into new cells Nucleus divides: 1 main fux of cell division: distribute genetic material into daughter cells B. Genetic Material Genome: a cells total genetic material Prokaryotes = usually 1 circular DNA molecule Eukaryotes – usually >1 linear DNA molecules o = chromosomes Genes : informational unit of DNA (genome) responsible for structure of al proteins in a cell 100/s or 1000s of genes per chromosome Locus : each specific location on chromosome Arranged linearly on chromosomes Humans ~ 20000 genes Chromosomes : “colored body” o DNA wrapped around proteins o Highly organized Histones : proteins in eukaryotic cells that are associated with DNA to form chromosomes after DNA packs around them Nucleosomes : 8 histones with 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around adjacent nucleosomes linked by linker DNA (60 bp) – make chromosomes Eukaryotic DNA Packaging (Fig.16.22) Chromatin : DNA / protein complex in dispersed state 19
Thread/fiber like DNA is usually in this state Condenses into chromosomes during cell division Chromosome structure: o Each has unique shape and size o Centromere: constricted are, site of spindle attachment o Telomeres: end regions (short and long) C.

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