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E- moves though PI ETC to protein ferredoxin (Fd)No H+ gradient generated, no ATP producedoNADPH SynthesisE- transferred to NADP+NADPH synthesized, released into stromaCalvin cycleCatalyzed by NADP+ reductaseoCyclic e- FlowLight dependentUses onlyPSI Produces only ATP16
Only photosystem I involvedP700 absorbs photon, e- primary acceptor PSII ETC back to P700Generates H+ gradient ATP synthesis – no NADPH or O2 resultsChemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria (Fig 10.18)C.Carbon Fixation ReactionsCarbon fixation equation: 6CO2+ 12NADPH + 18ATP C6H12O6+ 12NADP++18ADP + 8Pi+ 6H2OCalvin Cycle (C3 Cycle)oCarbon fixation method used by most plantsoIn stromaoDoes not need direct light, but indirectlyrequires ATP and NADPH from light-dependent reactiono13 rx’s each catalyzed by diff. enzymeo3 phases: carbon fixation, reduction, RuBP regeneration1stphase: carbon fixationCO2 + ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP, 5C) Rubisco unstable 6C compound 2x 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA)2nd& 3rdphases: reduction and RuBP regenerationPGA convert to G3P – Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate create sugar or RuBP17
LECTURE 11: THE CELL CYCLEI.Organization of cellular Genetic MaterialII.The Cell CycleI.Organization of Genetic MaterialA.IntroductionCell theory: all living things are made of one or more cellsBasic organization and fx unit of all organismsAll cells come from other cellsSome Terminally differentiated: do not divideoEx: erythrocyte, neuronsCell division = cell reproductionoUnicellular organisms – just reproductionoMulticellular organisms – 2 fx’sGrowth and developmentRenewal and repair after fully growthoDuring cell divisionAll parts of cell divided into new cellsNucleus divides: 1 main fux of cell division: distribute genetic material into daughter cellsB.Genetic MaterialGenome: a cells total genetic materialProkaryotes = usually 1 circular DNA moleculeEukaryotes – usually >1 linear DNA moleculeso= chromosomesGenes: informational unit of DNA (genome) responsible for structure of al proteins in a cell100/s or 1000s of genes per chromosomeLocus: each specific location on chromosomeArranged linearly on chromosomes Humans ~ 20000 genesChromosomes: “colored body”oDNA wrapped around proteinsoHighly organizedHistones: proteins in eukaryotic cells that are associated with DNA to form chromosomes after DNA packs around themNucleosomes: 8 histones with 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around adjacent nucleosomes linked by linker DNA (60 bp) – make chromosomesEukaryotic DNA Packaging (Fig.16.22)Chromatin: DNA / protein complex in dispersed state19
Thread/fiber likeDNA is usually in this stateCondenses into chromosomes during cell divisionChromosome structure:oEach has unique shape and sizeoCentromere: constricted are, site of spindle attachmentoTelomeres: end regions (short and long)C.