To the north and west of Ancient China were two of the world's largest deserts:the Gobi Desert and the Taklamakan Desert. These deserts also provided borders that kept the Chinese isolated from the rest of the world. The Mongols,however, lived in the Gobi Desert and were constantly raiding cities of northernChina. This is why the Great Wall of China was built to protect the Chinese fromthese northern invaders.Social structure of ancient china and the roles of main groups in societyFrom the Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty (221 B.C.- A.D. 1840), theChinese government dividedChinesepeople into fourclasses: landlord, peasant, craftsmen, and merchant. Landlords and peasants constituted the twomajorclasses, while merchant and craftsmen were collected into the two minor.All throughout Ancient China to the end of Imperial China, Chinese civilisation lived under a social hierarchy - a ruling system where people are ranked according to status or occupation.
There are many roles within the Chinese hierarchy, some more respected than others. The Ancient Chinese society can be classified into seven significant categories: the emperor, the Shi class, Nong class, Gong class, Shang class and slaves. These roles are often distributed since birth according to their parent's position, and each person is compelled to perform their duty, occasionally moving up the hierarchy ladder to a higher and better position.The EmperorThe emperor was an important role within the Ancient Chinese hierarchy:they were well venerated, dominating power over everyone in the kingdom, making the major decisions. The emperors had considerable wealth and owned the most land, they would usually assign talented soldiers and nobles to help them make decisions and govern small areas ofland, called counties. There would only be one emperor reigning at a time, when the emperor dies, the son would typically assume the throne. Throughout Chinese History, there has been emperors that significantly contributed to the progression of civilisation, and emperors that were tyrants, impeding further progression.SoldiersThe soldiers were also a respected class of the Ancient Chinese hierarchy, they were the defenders of the kingdom; protecting the country from raidsand riots, keeping the people in control. Soldiers also had great wealth.The Shi Class - NoblesNobles were well educated, gentry scholars of Imperial China especially prevalent in the Shang and Zhou Dynasty. These people were still relativelywell respected in the Ancient Chinese society. Nobles are low-level aristocrats, they were granted certain privileges and held limited power over people, conducting and commanding battles during wars. Nobles were also known for their warrior skills and double edged swords called JianThe Nong Class - Peasant FarmersPeasant farmers served an important purpose in the Chinese hierarchy: they had to sustain food for not only themselves, but the whole kingdom.