Calquing (482 tokens: 64.1% from L-I, 29.3% from U-I, 6.6% from A). A caique is a type of borrowing in which each morpheme or word is translated into the equivalent morpheme or word in another language (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 1992). The individual target language words used semantically match the individual words in the native language. 35. *My mother usually cooks something nice eat to me [cf. ngo5 maal maal si4 soeng4 zyu2 jatl sel hou2 hek3 dikl dungl sail kapl ngo5 (me mother usually cook some nice eat nominalizer thing to me)]. Discourse Level (64 Error Tokens). Discourse-related errors were associated with how the learners combined sentences or clauses into a broader text and their use of expressions within a text to refer to some portion of the discourse containing that text. Periphrastic-topic constructions (25 tokens: 44% from L-I, 28% from U-I, 28% from A). These sentences had a topic-comment structure with the redundant use of a subject noun phrase or pronoun to repeat a fronted topic (Yip, 1995). A significant cause was LI interference, because, in Chinese, topic-comment structures are very common. 36. *Hong Kong in the year 2047, it will have [cf. hoengl gong2 zoi6 2047 nin4 taal wui5 jau5 han2 dol dungl sail (Hong Kong in 2047 years it will have many things)]. Use of it as discourse deixis (39 tokens: 48.7% from L-I, 30.8% from U-I, 20.5% from A). These sentences showed an inappropriate use of it without a clear referent, as a discourse-deictic expression to refer to a preceding or following portion of a discourse. 37. * When I was talking to her, I feel it was so good. LI interference may not have been at work, because the structures of the erroneous English sentences were not comparable to those of their Chinese translations. The Chinese third-person singular personal pronoun taal (it) also behaves differently from the use of it in such sentences. Inadequate mastery of the pronoun and confusion resulting from the frequent use of dummy it in subject positions were probably the causes. As can be seen from the above taxonomy, errors at all the morphological, lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels are found from the written output of students. Despite the different populations of participants at the different proficiency levels, it can be seen that some TOWARD A TAXONOMY OF WRITTEN ERRORS 309 This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Fri, 25 Jan 2019 07:50:55 UTC All use subject to
errors, such as incorrect order of adverbials or adverbs and in prepositional phrases, are more typical of lower-intermediate students (with a much higher proportion of errors made by this level of students than the proportions of errors made by students at other levels), whereas these errors are rarely found in advanced students' writings. Other errors, such as pseudotough movement and misuse of until, are more prevalent at the upper-intermediate levels but are rarely found in lower intermediate students. Morphological errors, though few in total, are prevalent at the advanced level of students.
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- Fall '19