Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

Lifetime system lifetime ranges from 5000 cycles at

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Lifetime System lifetime ranges from 5,000 cycles at 90% depth-of-discharge, to 43,000 cycles at 10% depth-of- discharge [2]. This is to say that the cycle life is dependent of the average depth-of-discharge of the device. Response Time All NaS modules can reach full power within one millisecond, although it is more efficient (in terms of duty cycle) to have gradual load changes [2] Thermal Considerations Resistance heaters maintain the temperature of the module above 290 C during standby [2], and lead to parasitic losses between cycling. Environmental Impact Minimal since sodium and sulphur can both be safely disposed of. Other Resources For an exhaustive treatment of sodium sulfur batteries, refer to [24], and for less exhaustive but still informative treatments of the topic, see [2,3,7]. Discussions of existing projects and NaS installations are also available [23,25]. Summary of Device Parameters The following table summarizes the available technoeconomic parameters for sodium- sulfur batteries from a number of studies from 2000-2010. All monetary values have been adjusted to 2010 dollars. If a value is marked with “-” either the quantity was not found in the corresponding report or the way it was presented was inconsistent with the format used here. For example, the EPRI-DOE report gives total cost in $/kW or $/kWh, not a formulation that takes into account both, simultaneously. Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2] 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7] Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 70 80-86 71-82 - 75-90 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] 0.05 - - - 20 Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - 2500-4500 - - 2500 Expected Lifetime [Years] 10-15 15 5 - 10-15 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 150-240 Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - 150-230 Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 150-250 Power Density [W/L] - - - - - Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 180 - 300 150 1k-3k Energy Cost [$/kWh] 300 - 280 250 300-500 PCS Cost [$/kW] 120-600 180-530 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] 0-60 120 46 0 - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 24 23-61 - - - 24
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Energy Storage Technologies Sodium nickel chloride Batteries (ZEBRA) 3.10 Sodium nickel chloride Batteries (ZEBRA) The sodium nickel chloride battery, like the sodium sulfur battery, is a type of “molten salt” device. (The Sodium nickel chloride battery is also known as the ZEBRA R battery). As compared with it’s parent device, the NaS battery, it is less sensitive to overcharging and deep discharging, and potentially a safer device. However, it also has a lower energy and power density than NaS devices [7]. How it Works This device is similar to the sodium sulfur battery in that the negative electrode is made of liquid sodium, and is separated from the positive electrode by a solid beta alumina electrolyte. The difference is that this device has a positive electrode of solid nickel chloride, and also uses a second liquid electrolyte of sodium chloroaluminate to allow for fast transport of sodium ions from the nickel chloride electrode back and forth from the ceramic electrolyte [26].
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