The Growth of Cities 13.2 Describe how cities have tended to grow as society goes through the process of industrialization. All humans organize their lives into communities , which are groups of people who share a common territory and a sense of identity or belonging and who interact with one another (Lyon and Driskell, 2012). A city is a relatively large permanent community of people who rely on surrounding agricultural communities for their food supply. Urbanization Ushered by industrialization. By mid-twentieth century, cities had millions of inhabitants. Suburbanization Equally as important as the growth in size of cities has been the growth of suburbs , less densely populated areas, primarily residential in nature, on the outskirts of a city.
The Postindustrial City Many cities have retained or increased jobs in the financial service industries, those related to the functioning of corporate headquarters, telecommunications, and publishing, and those involving nonprofit and governmental activities (Abrahamson, 2004). Perspectives on Population and Urban Problems 13.3 Compare and contrast the three sociological approaches to the nature and extent of population and urban problems. The Functionalist Perspective Both societies and cities are systems made up of interdependent parts that changes in one part of the system may have consequences for the other parts. The Conflict Perspective Population and urban problems are due more to inequitable distribution of resources than to a lack of resources. Population becomes a social problem when those who control the economic system take steps to limit artificially the resources available in order to benefit a particular group of people. Cities have deteriorated because the groups most directly affected– people living in the cities–have not had the political and economic resources to thwart the changes under way (Feagin, 1998). The Interactionist Perspective This perspective stresses the importance of social definition and social meaning. Population and urban problems are as much about subjective definitions of reality as they are about objective conditions. Population conditions become social problems, in part, because of people’s social definition of what is desirable or essential in their lives. Consequences of World Population Growth 13.4 Define the carrying capacity of an ecosystem and summarize the four problems produced by current levels of world population growth.
Carrying capacity: an upper-size limit that is imposed on a population by its environmental resources and that cannot be permanently exceeded (Cohen, 1995). o The idea of carrying capacity parallel some Malthusian ideas about population dynamics: A point is reached at which environmental resources in a geographic region are insufficient to allow further population growth, at least not without a change or decline in lifestyle.
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- Fall '17