The civil rights movement working within the system

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The Civil Rights MovementWorking Within the SystemNAACP tries to work through legal systemoSegregation in the South, separate entrances bathrooms and building, widespread, segregation is a law, WWII makes African Americans want to fight for freedoms at homeoWWII veterans take positions in NAACPoCivil rights starts in African American churches, between mid 50s early 70sshift toward more radical black movementoLed by Charles Houston and then Thurgood MarshalloStarted with higher education, argued states need to provide actual separate but equal facilitiesGaines Case- U of Missouri set up black law schoolSweat Case, University of Texas- wanted to quickly create black law school, far from equal, had to admit black students
The Brown Decision- 1954oBegan with Briggs v. Elliot case- focused on how unequal the public schools were, educational funding (4x more money on each white student)oPsychological studies from black children were used, segregation was damaging to black childrenoConcludes that separate but equal is unconstitutional, violates the 14thamendment (equal protections under the law)oLimits- only applies to public schools, only addressed legal segregation, didn’t provide means of implementation, most schools remain segregated until mid 60soOverturns Plessy decisionRacial ViolenceMississippi- violence against blacks was especially severe, white juries did not convict white people for violenceMurder of Emmett Till- 1955o14 year old brutally murdered, from Chicago, gone into white owned store, flirted w/ young white woman- store owners wife, kidnapped till, beat him severely, shot him in theface, murderers were arrested and charged, open casket funeraloSouthern leaders site tills death as turning point to activismThe Movement in the 50sAfrican Americans fight for civil rights was native to the south, not northern blacks trying to change the southLocal chapters of NAACPMontgomery Bus Boycott- 1955oRosa Parks didn’t give up seat on bus, active in civil Rights movement alreadyoIn response to her arrest, they decided to boycott bus system, went on for over a year, 1956 Alabama Supreme Court- unconstitutional for segregation on busesMartin Luther King Jr.oNonviolent tactics to protest discrimination, leader of nonviolent church centered movementoSCLC- 1956- Nonviolence was a philosophyWhite Resistance- civil rights had to happen at every level of society, southern states outlawed NAACP, passed local/state laws that made desegregation against the law, closed schools down all together instead of desegregating them
Eisenhower and Civil RightsoCivil rights Act of 1957- passed b/c Lyndon Johnson’s leadership in congress, established civil rights division of judicial systemoStrom Thurmond filibustered for over 24 hours, longestLittle Rock High- 1957oArkansas Governor used national guard to prevent desegregationThe Kennedy AdministrationElection of 1960- Nixon (R) v. Kennedy and LBJ (D)o

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