Makes up enzymes a class of proteins that make metabolic events proceed much

Makes up enzymes a class of proteins that make

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Makes up enzymes , a class of proteins that make metabolic events proceed much faster than normal. Antibodies are made of proteins. Make up storage and transport agents. The basic structural unit of a protein is the amino acid . Amino acids are monomers bonded by condensation to form long polymer chains called polypeptides ( proteins).
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Enzyme Activity
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Amino Acid
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The Structure of An Amino Acid All amino acids are made of 4 things: An amino group An acid group or carboxyl group A hydrogen atom One or more atoms called an “ R ” group. The only thing that makes one amino acid different from other amino acids is what is attached at the “R” group spot. Amino Group (NH 3 ) Acid Group or Carboxyl group R Group (ID’s the amino acid) Hydrogen Atom
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The Structure of Amino Acids tyrosine (tyr) valine (val) glycine (gly) lysine (lys) Notice that the only difference between these amino acids is their “ R groups (in green). There are 20 different amino acids. When amino acids are linked together (by condensation ), you have a protein ! Amino acids are connected to each other by peptide bonds. The sequence of amino acids determines which type of protein is produced. Question: What determines the sequence of amino acids to build the correct protein? DNA
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The Construction of a Protein Each time an amino acid is joined to the chain, a water molecule is lost ( condensation ) Three or more amino acids in a chain create a polypeptide newly forming polypeptide chain PROTEIN ORGANIZATION: What type of reaction is this?
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Three-Dimensional Protein Structure A chain of amino acids represents the primary structure of a protein. What is insulin? Pancreatic hormone that lowers glucose levels in the blood by causing cells to take up glucose. Promotes protein & fat synthesis Inhibits protein conversion to glucose. What happens if there is not insulin production? Cells starve even though blood glucose is high. The body will breakdown fats and produce ketones. *How many water molecules were liberated by condensation to produce the shorter polypeptide strand? Answer: 20 (1 water molecule between each amino acid that is bonded) 2 disulfide bridges
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Secondary Protein Structure When amino acids group together to form coils or sheets , the secondary structure of proteins is demonstrated. The tiny dots in this picture represent weak hydrogen bonds . Helical coil Sheet-like arrays (silk) Note: HYDROGEN bonds between the amino acids of the Primary Structure allow ‘bending’ to permit a Secondary Structure .
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Tertiary Protein Structure When the “R” groups of a coiled polypeptide interact with one another to form a twisted or folded shape , the protein shows its tertiary structure, as shown here.
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  • Fall '15
  • Miller
  • DNA

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