O tin PH en D C s o H o JO C c5 C H D S o T3 O o o H C OH T3 rt c en o U OH en

O tin ph en d c s o h o jo c c5 c h d s o t3 o o o h

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'^ ^ • ^ O tin PH ^ en ^ (D _C s ^ o ^H "•"^ ^ o JO> _C 'c5 C^ ^H (D ^ 'S ^^ o >. T3 O o >. '^ _o ^H C^ OH T3 rt c^ en ^ ' o (U OH en ^ ^ :^ ^ s bo s; ^ ^ ^ s bo s; S en o OH 0 5 ^ O C^ ^ ^ •^ ^ O .& •5b 2 " i ^ / en o C/5 C/5 bO O ^ t^ PH S Xfl a> ^ PH o 'A s o o ^ 0 a> Xfl CIH ^ •^ 5y c<j =1 bo ^ ^ s; o ^ Ci ^ s ^ ^r^ ^ ^ s OH o ^ s; o g ^ s OH < • £ S ^ s OH - O OH ^^ o 'c5 P^ O pq bo ^ s; o S ^ s ^ ^ s ^ ^ s; o s ^ s iH ^ OH o o •^ c^ o in o 'bb c^ o O ^ I OH o ^ .s; . ^ ^ § ^ § § 5—( <-^ C O >. w a> {/5 PH O) LH a> S ^o *S ^ ^ s •^ ^ o s; ^ ^ •S S! :^ •<) bo > ^
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Introduction 13 OH 0 < OH OH C^ OH C^ *—> ^^ rt 'c5 OH C/) ^ 2 C^ ^ ^ (U OH O 0 w < c/:) ^ d c^ g 'c5 H < o OH o OH o u OH o >. c^ O ^ c/i ^ U d CIH' c. OH (D O H o ;:3 m T3 rt i^ ^ o >^ c^ o ^ -rf rt ^ 'oS o o < OH o c^ ^ 5-; ^ « ^ ~^ S, o C/2 ^ (7j g I S l o g TO Q c^ (U ) ^ ' ^ GO « .f<J ^ ^ O I (u 53 3 ^ ^ ^ • ^ « rt S ^ „ o F s 5 ^ ^ , ! 1 1 1 ^ g' s 3 8 § b 1 ^ ^ a = § ^ o sSI •9 S ^^-^ 05 (U rt T3 _rt ^ ^—^ en c^ ^ o 05 C^ > cn ' ^ H (U ^ (U bfl rt -^ o o ^ o ^ c/:) c^ O o o c^ On 0-) 2 -^ bo '5b ^ ^^ ^ o ^ 1^ u g 5 O o^ OH ^ o U 05 'cn O > (U W o rt c^ OH a O OH (L) > o d" SH ^^^ >J s ^ p^ o 1 -^ <sj w < a O ^H T3 rt >. en (U 05 C^ 05 ^ J J '^ s % PS ^ ^ o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ s ^ ^ S ^ ^ ^ s; ^ 0 ^ ? ^ ^ 1 0 ^ >J 1 ^ ^ :i •^ ^ 0 ^ ^ > j ^ > j ^ ^ s; ^ ^ <>^ ^ t ;:^ ^ s; s; ^ o ^
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14 Introduction OH O o (U bO rt c^ 05 O X 5 o ;-( ^ o 'cS C^ o 15 en Q < ^ C/5 o p^ o 15 en Q < O ^H ^ o ^ rt •c5 P^ O c^ PH c^ £ T3 rt i^ (L) ^H OH g o ^ T3 rt J^ ^ o ^ ri >. ri (U ^ (D S S P5 in zn rt _o 'en ^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ^ (DJD G O O ^ -^ +3 PH ^ ^ < s ^ ^ s 7Q ? ^ ^ S {/5 Q §P ^ ^ ^^ o ^ '^ ^ ^ T3 (U ^ rt (U -^ 'S ^ T3 (U ^ rt (U -^ 'S ^ T3 (U ^ rt (U -^ 'S ^ <
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2 Characteristics of the diseases ANAEROBES The first report of botulism as a disease of fish was from Denmark, stemming from the work of Huss and Eskilden (1974). These workers showed that botuHsm was a chronic disease, termed "bankruptcy disease'", of farmed trout, with the causal agent recognised as CI. botulinum type E. Subsequently, the disease was found on one farm of rainbow trout in Great Britain (Cann and Taylor, 1982, 1984) and was similarly identified among farmed coho salmon in the U.S.A. (Eklund et al, 1982). Character- istic disease symptoms seemed to be very vague, but fish have been observed to exhibit sluggish, erratic swimming, appeared to be listless, and may alternately float and sink, before showing temporary rejuvenation. This pattern was repeated until death eventually ensued (Cann and Taylor, 1982). Eubacteriaceae representative Eubacterium tarantellae The term "eubacterial meningitis" was coined for this disease (Winton et ai, 1983), which is a neurological condition, in which the infected fish display twirling until death results (Udey et al, 1976). Cells of the organism may be readily observed in sections of brain tissue. There was Httle, if any, external pathology observed. It is interesting to note from Udey's work that some fish were also infected with other organisms, namely, trematodes {Bucephalus sp.) and Vibrio spp.; whereas ~20% possessed low numbers of Myxosoma cephalus spores in the brain cavity. Therefore, it is relevant to enquire whether this anaerobe represented a primary or secondary pathogen during the outbreak of disease in Biscayne Bay.
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16 Bacterial Fish Pathogens GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA—THE "LACTIC ACID" BACTERIA According to Ross and Toth (1974), the abdomens of moribund fish were distended because of the presence of ascitic fluid. However, it was readily admitted that mortalities could not be directly attributed to the lactobacillus "pathogen". The
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