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Other studies indicate that women who complete the Ph.D. are more likely to drop out ofacademia, to fall behind men in salary and post-tenure promotions, and to have appointments atlower-ranked institutions (Caplan 1995; Williams 2000).While these and other issues are sure to remain for some time in the future, more andmore departments are beginning to recognize the special barriers female academics face. In astunning acknowledgement, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology recently acknowledgedthat an investigation had uncovered a pattern of long-term systemic gender discrimination insalaries and other valued resources, and that it would implement a program to redress theseinequalities (Miller and Wilson 1999).Sources used for this essay and additional reading ideas include: Paula J. Caplan.Liftinga Ton of Feathers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995; Constance Coiner and DianaHume George.The Family Track. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998; Mary Ann Masonand Marc Goulden, “Do Babies Matter?”Academe88 (November/December 2002); Kathryn P.Meadow and Ruth A. Wallace (eds.).Gender and the Academic Experience. Lincoln: Universityof Nebraska Press, 1994; D.W. Miller and Robin Wilson, “MIT Acknowledges Bias AgainstFemale Faculty Members,”The Chronicle of Higher Education45 (April 2, 1999); Emily Toth.Ms. Mentor’s Impeccable Advice for Women in Academia. Philadelphia: University ofPennsylvania Press, 1997.1-3: India’s Sacred Cow: A Functionalist ViewTo an American tourist in India, the Hindu prohibition against slaughtering cows mayappear to be an ignorant belief that stands in the way of progress. The cattle browse unhinderedIM – 1 | 15
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Full file at in street markets, eating oranges and mangoes while people compete for the meager foodsupplies.Why is there such a devotion to the cow, or zebu, the large-humped species foundthroughout Asia and Africa? The simple explanation is that it is an integral part of Hinduism. Yetwe know that many Indian people are often on the edge of starvation. Why has this practice,which appears to be manifestly dysfunctional, persisted for centuries?Economists, agronomists, and social scientists working from a functionalist perspectivehave found that cow worship is highly functional for Indian society. For example, the zebusperform two essential tasks: plowing the fields and producing milk. If eating zebu meat werepermitted, families might be tempted to slaughter their cows for immediate consumption, leavingthemselves susceptible to eventual ruin. In addition, zebus produce dung, which is recovered asfertilizer and as a fuel for cooking. (American scientists are even attempting to replicate thispractice to help our society meet its needs for more energy sources.) Finally, the prohibitionagainst slaughtering cows serves the function of assisting India’s poor. Untouchables (India’slowest-status group) eat zebu beef in the secrecy of their homes. Thus, the prohibition against

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Sociology, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, Du Bois, Anomie Durkheim
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