In menu design colour paper illustrations typeface

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In menu design, colour, paper, illustrations, typeface and layout reflect the overall ambience of the restaurant (Bowen & Morris, 1995; Lundberg & Walker, 1993). In addition, the menu is an extension of the personality of the restaurant should reinforce the image of the re staurant and can draw the customer’s attention to items that the restaurant attempts to sell (Bowen & Morris, 1995). For example, the menu cover should be designed to complement the overall theme of the restaurant. Menu descriptions should describe the dishes and present them in a way that will give patrons an accurate picture of the food while increasing the likelihood of their sale (Mill, 2007). If the information expectation is based on incorrect menu representations, for example, and the quality or quantity of a menu item is not met or exceeded, then restaurant patrons may not return to that restaurant (Lionel & Mills, 2006). In addition, readability of menu is important; the typeface used must be large and legible enough to allow patrons to read the descriptions (Eliwa, 2006). Further, Mill (2007) suggests that Roman script imitates handwriting and should be used primarily only for headings and subheadings because it is difficult to read, whereas typefaces with lowercase are easier to read; typefaces with italics and uppercase should be used only to maximise impact. 2.3.2.5 Table Setting Table setting is defined as “… the product or material used to serve every customer whenever a turnover occurred” (Ryu, 2005, p. 154). Since the table setting is the first thing that the restaurant patrons see at the table, it is important to blend the table setting attractively with appropriate dinnerware 5 , glassware 6 , flatware 7 , table linen 8 and table accessories 9 so they coordinate the mood of the restaurant: formal or informal; expensive or economical (Mill, 2007; Ryu, 2005; Ryu & Han, 2011; Ryu & Jang, 2007). 5 Dinnerware or chinaware refers to the dishes used to serve food and hot beverages such as cups and plates (Katsigris & Thomas, 1999). 6 Glassware refers to the containers used for serving water or beverages, coming in different shapes and sizes such as water goblets and wine glasses (Katsigris & Thomas, 1999). 7 Flatware or silverware means forks, knives and spoons in all various sizes and shapes. Generally, flatware is made from stainless steel (Katsigris & Thomas, 1999). 8 Table linen, such as napkins and table cloths, adds to the feeling within a restaurant. Table linen comes in a variety of colours that can blend with the mood of the restaurant (Mill, 2007). 9 Mill (2007) suggests that a flower vase, salt and pepper shaker, a candle or lamp, and an ashtray (if the table is in a smoking section) are the only table accessories that should be on the table as part of the table setting.
32 Table setting is often accepted as one of the most important tangible qualities of a restaurant service (Raajpoot, 2002; Ryu & Jang, 2007, 2008; Wang, 2011), however, the table setting has been largely ignored in the foodservice literature probably “... because it is very unique and valid only to restaurants” (Ryu & Jang, 2007, p. 61). Even though the table

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