The objects of the concept between the target problem and the source case being the same means that the domains are the same. So cased-based reasoning is withindomain analogy. An analogical reasoning in general, objects in the target columnand the source case too, might be different. We saw an example of analogical reasoning in the Dunker radiation problem, when we were talking about cross-domain analogical transfer. Actually recording cases in case based reasoning arealso examples of analogical reasoning, except that they occur in the same domain. The target firm and the source cases in the same domain, which is why weconsider them earlier. By analogical reasoning here, we mean cross domain analogical transfer. As in the Dunker radiation problem.
09 - Three Types of SimilaritySemantic similarity used with conceptual similarity between the target problem and the source case. If we recall the original exercise that David had answered,in that exercise, a woman climbing up a ladder is conceptually similar, semantically similar to a woman climbing up a step ladder. The same kind of concepts occur in both situations. Woman, and step ladder or ladder. Pragmatic similarity concerns with external factors. Factors external to the presentation,such as goals. As an example, in the Dunker radiation problem, the physician hada goal of killing the tumor, which was similar to the goal of capturing the fortin case of the rebel army and the king. Pragmatic similarity refers to similarity of external factors, factors external to the representation, such as similarity of goals. The Dunker radiation problem for example, the physician hadthe goal of killing the tumor, which was similar to the goal of capturing the fort in case of the rebel army in the king example. The third measure of similarity is structural similarity. Structure here refers to the structure of presentations, not to physical structure. Now structural similarity of the firsttwo, similarity between the representational structures of the target problem and the source case, and we'll look at an example of this in just a few minutes.Know that one can assign different kinds of weights to these three measures of similarity. So some queries of analogy focus on structural similarity. Other theories of analogy focus on semantic and pragmatic similarity. That is also whyyou may have given slightly different answers to the questions in the first exercise than David did. 10 - Exercise Analogical Retrieval ILet us do another exercise together now that we know about deep similarity and superficial similarity. Consider the situation again, a woman is climbing up a ladder. Give this set of situations, mark whether each of the situations is deeply similar or superficially similar to this given situation. Know that some might be both and others might be neither 11 - Exercise Analogical Retrieval I>> This is good, David. Once again, different people may give different answers to this exercise. Why do we do so? Well, let's examine it next.