Immortalized cells can be generated by either 1

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Immortalized cells can be generated by either 1) increasing telomerase expression to extend the sequence (telomere) at the end of chromosomes or 2) creating transformed cells that have a cancerFlike character and are either derived from cancer or induced to divide without a properly regulated cell cycle. Organism Size Cost Genetics Pros Cons Yeast Very small Cheap Sequenced genome Asexual reproduction => offspring are identical to parent -storage -easy to manipulate the genome Only one cell type Fruit Fly ( Drosophila melanogaster ) Small Fairly cheap Long history as a genetic system, sequenced genome -fast generation time -few ethical issues -some models of human diseases Cannot store long-term, must maintain stocks Mouse Smallish Expensive Long history of inbreeding in labs, sequenced genome -can make gene deletions (KOs) -many cell types -many models of human diseases -good for whole- organism studies -Cannot store long-term, must maintain stocks -Handling and mating is labor- intensive Human Large Very Expensive It’s complicated Very relevant to human diseases Can’t grow in lab*
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