Woroniecki Section 1-1 to 1-3 ROQ

Section 1 3 elements elements are pure substances

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Section 1-3 : Elements Elements are pure substances that can’t be broken down. They all have characteristic properties. Based on their properties, they are grouped in order on the periodic table. Introduction to the Periodic Table: The symbol for elements on the periodic table may be similar to the name, but most symbols originate from the latin names for the elements (i.e. Gold (u) is derived from aurum) The vertical columns on the periodici table are called families or groups. They are grouped together, from groups 1 to 18, based on their similar properties. The horizontal rows on the table are called periods. They don’t necessarily share properties, but elements close to each other in periods tend to be similar to each other. The two sets placed below the table are named the lanthanide and actinide series. They fit into the table from 57 to 89, and were taken out to prevent the table from being too wide. They are metallic. Types of Elements:
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There are two main types of elements: metals and nonmentals. Nonmetals are to the right, metals are to the left and center. Metals: Metal – an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity At room temperature, most metals are solid. Metals can be malleable (hammered and rolled into sheets), ductile (drawn into fine wire), due to their tensile strength, or the ability to resist even when being pulled. Copper – A Representative Metal: Copper basically embodies all the properties of a metal It has a high melting point and an even higher boiling point Copper can be stretched into fine wire It can also conducts heat and electricity with very little loss of energy Nonmetals: Many nonmetals are gas at room temperature. Nonmetal – an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Phosphorous – A Representative Nonmetal: Solid nonmetal (1 of 5) Relatively low boiling point
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Metalloids: Metalloids – elements that have charactertistics of both metals and nonmetals. All metalloids are solid are room temperature. Not as malleable as metals, but not as brittle as nonmetals. Semiconductor of heat/electricity. Noble Gases: The elements in group 18 of the periodic table are the noble elements. Generally unreactive All gasses at room temp. Section 1-3 Questions: 1.) O - oxygen , S - Sulfur, Cu - copper, Ag – silver 2.) Iron – Fe, Nitrogen – N, Calcium – Ca, Mercury – Hg 3.) Elements in a group are more prone to undergo similar chemical reactions than those in a period. 4.) Metals are good conductors of electricy and heat, nonmetals are not, and metalloids are in between.
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