Describe Dr. Lynn Margulis' endosymbiosis hypothesis and what is the evidence that supports it? Dr. Margulis’ hypothesis states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as symbiosis between single celled organisms bacteria taken into archaea. Evidence: mitochondria and chloroplasts contain bacterial chromosomes, have ribosomes, divide by binary fission, double membrane. What is a typical size of a bacterial cell? A eukaryotic cell? What are the typical shapes and some unusual structures of bacterial cells we learned in class. Typical size of a bacterial cell can be .5 to 5 micrometers Typical size of a eukaryotic cell is 10-500 micrometers Bacterial shapes: coccus, square, spirochete, rods Why does size matter? Cell size is determined by surface to volume ratio. Smaller cells have higher surface area to volume ratio, which is necessary for responding to the environment quickly. What are the three domains of life, how do we classify organisms (based on what and why)? Archaea, Prokarya/Bacteria, Eukarya WE classify based on genome, reproduction, morphology, and metabolism What are the major similarities and differences between the three domains? All : DNA, protein, cytoskeleton, polysaccharides, lipid bilayer archaea has lipid monolayer, but some have bilayers Bacteria and Eukarya : fatty acids, G-3-P ester bonds, lipids Bacteria and Archaea : pilus, S layer Unique to each : Bacteria – peptidoglycan Eukarya – mitochondria, nucleus, golgi Archaea – isoprenoids, G-1-P ether lipids What is a cell? What are the characteristics of all cells? What are the characteristics of many cells? Characteristics of all cells: DNA, cytoskeleton, polysaccharides, protein, lipid bilayer the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Draw a typical bacterial and eukaryotic cell: 21. Know the location (which region, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, cell exterior), composition, and function of each of the following: a. Flagella – attached to cell wall by hook and basal body, helps in movement b. Pili or Fimbrae – proteins arranged in helical fashion, important in attachment to