Servant leadership has been used extensively in a variety of organizations for more than many years CHAPTER 13 • One of the earliest writings that specifically focused on leadership ethics appeared as recently as 1996 o These scholars examined how leadership theory and practice could be used to build a more caring and just society • Ethics is concerned with the kinds of values and morals an individual or society finds desirable or appropriate o Also concerned with virtuousness of individuals and their motives • Ethical theory: provides a system of rules or principles that guide us in making decisions about what is right or wrong and good or bad in a particular situation KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL 1: Pre-conventional Morality (reasoning based on self-interest, avoiding punishment, and rewards) 1. Obedience and Punishment 2. Individualism and Exchange LEVEL 2: Conventional Morality (reasoning based on society’s views and expectations) 3. Interpersonal Accord Conformity 4. Maintaining the Social Order LEVEL 3: Post Conventional Morality (reasoning based on conscience and creating a just society) 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights 6. Universal Principles ETHICAL THEORIES • Conduct: o Consequences (teleological theories): answering “what is right” by looking at results or outcomes Ethical egoism: act so as to create the greatest good for her or himself Utilitarianism: we should behave so as to create the greatest good for the greatest number Altruism: actions are moral if their primary purpose is to promote the best interests of others o Duty (deontological theories): focuses on the actions of the leader and his or her moral obligations and responsibilities to do the right thing • Character: o Virtue-based theories: approaches ethics from the viewpoint of a leader’s character Virtues are rooted in the heart of the individual and in the individual’s disposition
Believed that virtues and moral abilities are not innate and can be acquired and learned through practice Now – emphasis that more attention should be given to the development and training of moral values Virtues of an ethical person: courage, temperance, generosity, self-control, honesty, sociability, modesty, fairness, and justice Velasquez suggests managers develop virtues such as: perseverance, public- spiritedness, integrity, truthfulness, fidelity, benevolence, and humility • In short, ethics is central to leadership because of the nature of the process of influence, the need to engage followers in accomplishing mutual goals, and the impact leaders have on the organization’s values. HEIFETZ’S PERSPECTIVE ON ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Emphasizes how leaders help followers to confront conflict and to address conflict by effecting changes • Deals with values of workers, organizations and communities in which they work • Leaders must use authority to mobilize people to face tough issues BURN’S PERSPECTIVE ON ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Argues that it is important for leaders to engage themselves with followers and help them in their personal struggles regarding conflicting values.
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- Fall '13