Exploitation without occupation While the invasion was impressive and

Exploitation without occupation while the invasion

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Exploitation without occupation: While the invasion was impressive and devastated some areas, the Mongols chose not to occupy the relatively poor and isolated Rus. Instead they settled nearby on the steppes and pastoral lands north of the Caspian and Black Seas. They put them within striking distance of the cities from which they extorted tribute. Resistance and collaboration: Some cities chose to resist and faced brutal retaliation. Kiev, for example, was razed. Others collaborated and helped the Mongols collect tribute and taxes and wound up doing very well for themselves. Rise of Moscow and expansion of the church: Moscow rose as the core of a new Russian state that adopted Mongol weapons, diplomacy, taxation, court system, and a draft. The Russian Orthodox Church enjoyed Mongol tolerance and tax exemption and spread its reach deeper into the countryside. Toward a World Economy Not producers or traders but promoters of commerce: While the Mongols did not make anything or engage in trade, they did promote production and commerce in the regions they controlled, providing tax breaks for merchants and sometimes paying high prices to attract commerce to their cities. Security on the Silk Roads: The most important contribution was an unprecedented security on the Silk Roads. This allowed for a dramatic increase in trade throughout Central Asia, with many individuals making the entire journey from west to east and back. Marco Polo was the most famous but many others used guidebooks on their trips. Connected to the larger world system: The Mongol trade circuit connected to other trade networks throughout the rest of Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Middle east, Africa, and Europe, doing much to forge a global economy. Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale European envoys sent east: When the Mongols made their way into Eastern Europe in a 1241– 1242 campaign, they seemed poised to take the region. However, the death of Great Khan Ogodei required the Mongol leaders to return home. Aware of the threat the Mongols posed, European kings and the Pope sent emissaries east to negotiate with the Mongols. European discovery of the outside world: These missions provided the previously isolated Europeans with a wealth of knowledge about the rest of the world. Mongol linkage of China and Persia: As these two great empires were part of a larger Mongol system, communications between the two increased. Thus, the Mongols created an unprecedented level of international communication. Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm
Forced population transfers and voluntary migrations: The Mongols forced some people, such as artisans and engineers, to move from one place to another where their skills were needed. Others moved freely as part of religious travel tolerated by the Mongols or as part of commercial activity encouraged by the Mongols.

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