Glycogenesis make stored glucose in the liver for

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Glycogenesis= make stored glucose in the liver for short term useoGlycogenolysis- break down (stored) glycogen into new glucoseoGlut4= door that allows insulin into cellsG words and their processes:oInsulin is released when there’s high glucose in the blood. Lets glucose into cells, signals glut4 toopen its door to allow glucose into cell.1. Once in the cell- glycolysis= glucose → pyruvate → ATP (energy)2. If too much glucose, short term storage in liver3. Fatty acid synthesis- make fat from acetyl CoA, stored in triglycerides within adipose tissueoGlucagon= released when there’s low glucose, (glucose is gone)Glycogenolysis- break glucose out of glycogenGluconeogenesis- make new glucose fromLactateAcetyl CoA → pyruvate →glucoseGlycerol (breakdown fats)Amino acids (proteins, as last resort)Beta Oxidation- break fats into acetyl CoAPage31of41
Biochem Mod 5Fatty acids- the simplest of lipids. All lipids are nonpolar and hydrophobic.oAlpha, beta, omega bondsAlphais attached to carboxylBetais attached to alpha- breaks when we break down fatty acid for energy (beta oxidation)Omegais complete opposite (end) of carboxyl, count left to right from omega carbon todetermine which # carbon is the double bondoFluidityMore double bonds always mean more fluid (except trans)If they have the same number of double bonds, shortest chain has the most fluidSaturated fatty acid- solid at room temp, from animal sources (ie. butter)No double bondsbetween carbonsStraight or linear, long chain, stays compacted together, can stack wellContain maximum number of hydrogensUnsaturated fatty acid- oils that are liquid at room temp, plant basedAt least one carbon that is not paired with hydrogenHas at least 1 double bond between carbonsShort chain, kinked, can move around easily, doesn’t stack well (d/t double bonds)Lose 2 hydrogens per double bondUnsaturated fatty acids melt at cooler temperatures than saturated fatty acids of thesame chain lengthMonounsaturated fatty acid- A fatty acid containing one double bondPage32of41
Polyunsaturated fatty acid- A fatty acid with more than one double bond in its carbonchainPage33of41
oEssential fatty acids- Must be eaten in diet. There are different categories of unsaturated fatty acidsdepending on the location of the first double bond in the carbon chain.If the first double bond occurs between the third and fourth carbons, counting from the omegaend (CH3) of the chain, the fat is said to be an omega-3 fatty acid (EPA/DHA, fish oil)If the first double bond occurs between the sixth and seventh carbons (from the omega end),the fatty acid is called an omega-6 fatty acid; this type of fatty acid is obtained from vegetableoils such as corn and safflower oil.Omega 3, Omega 6have to be eaten in our diet- essentialOmega 9 is not essential, body can make itoRules for fatty acidsAll fatty acids only have 2 oxygensIf it issaturated, there will be twice as many hydrogens as carbons.Ifunsaturated

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Term
Spring
Professor
Dr. Rob Rawson
Tags
DNA, Adenosine triphosphate

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