■ There had been no division between church and state. Shows that churches were not independent and they view themselves as subsidiary and assume the positions that it did, explains why they did what they did. Scripture supported state policies f 1933—Protestantism: group called the German Christians=members of protestant church. Radical extreme German Christians sought to restructure all Christian beliefs to de-Jewish any parts of Christianity—one argument was that Jesus was not a Jew and his mission was to overcome Judaism. They expelled all pastors that had any roots of Judaism, and they expelled any converts to it. ● o The Confessing Church —arose in response to the Nazi-fication of German Christians. They apposed the racialization of the Church. They did not believed that pastors should be removed or expel converts—principle of faith and of state—church is independent of the state, it should
retain autonomy. They opposed the Aryan teachings of churches. 7,000 pastors had joined this church in 1 year. However, this church was not fully independent, it was vying for power of protestant church. Any organized effort to help Jews came from the Confessing church. But did they attempt to protect Jews in Germany—not really. In a sense they can say that they protected Jews in the Church, but outside of the church they didn’t make efforts to help them in outside life. They believed it was not the Churches position to take a stance in the state affaris. ● Roman Catholicism: based elsewhere and international, much more independence than other German churches. Catholics were a minority in Germany, and in the early 1900’s they were oppressed. Nazis often attacked Catholics and Jews as agents of internationalism. Nazis’ neo- paganism (anti-christian), Catholics banned Catholics from voting for Nazis. Protestants voted right wing, where catholics voted more liberally in the center. What happens is in 1933 there was a significant shift: the center party voted with Hitler to suspend civil rights and liberties—5 days after this vote the prohibition for Catholics to join Nazi party was erased. In april 1933, pope Pius 11th proclaimed how pleased he was that Germany now had a leader who was so opposed to Communism. ● July 1933, Catholic church makes formal agreement with Nazis known as the Concordat—July 1933—it regulated the relationship b/t Nazis and Church. No more Catholic political force in Nazi Germany—it was dissolved. All catholic clergy were banned from making public political commentary—this eliminated Catholicism as a political force. In return Germany committed to protect Catholic churches in Germany from state interference—Hitler broke this again and again. ● Vatican had always tended to be on the right when it came to politics—Catholic center party had been too liberal so this shift was a good way to get rid of this party, AND the Vatican was threatened by communism and thereore they had a greater interest in Nazi anti-communism then they had against most other Nazi policies.
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- Summer '07
- The Bible, Germans