Bilisoly_E_Final_Research_Week_7.docx

Functioning subtype which is grandiose thick skinned

Info icon This preview shows pages 12–15. Sign up to view the full content.

functioning subtype which is grandiose, thick-skinned marked by overt grandiosity, attention- seeking, entitlement and arrogance presenting as socially charming, interpersonally exploitative and oblivious to the needs of others (Calligor, et. al., 2015). Differentiating subtypes, another type of NPD presents as vulnerable, thin-skinned and covert. They are inhibited, manifestly distressed, hypersensitive to the evaluation of others and consistently envious of others. Characteristics include shy, outwardly self-effacing and hypersensitive to slights while secretly harboring grandiosity (Calligor, et. al., 2015). In addition, a healthier group exists characterized by high-functioning, exhibitionistic and/or autonomous. They are grandiose, competitive, sexually provocative and attention-seeking while exhibiting adaptive functioning using their
Image of page 12

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 13 narcissistic traits to succeed. This proposed subtype is often missed in evaluations and overlooked on diagnostic assessments (Calligor, et. al., 2015). Whereas flexible and reality based self-experience characterizes normal identity formation, the sense of self in NPD is brittle and removed from reality predicated on maintaining a view of oneself as exceptional. However, maintaining this view requires a retreat from realities that do not support grandiosity leaving the individual excessively reliant on external feedback to support positive self-regard and self- definition (Calligor, et. al., 2015). This pattern of behavior leaves the individual with NPD vulnerable to external forces for validation chronically leaving them subject to outside approvals. Further, NPD’s are threatened by engagement with others for fear they will identify a quality they lack which causes superficial relationships. The more vulnerable types of NPD withdraw from social situations to preserve self-regulatory needs leaving both types with little ability to take a genuine interest in the needs and feelings of others (Calligor, et. al., 2015). This group faces a two-sided sword in that their validation is external, yet they are threatened by their source of validation. NPD is often co-occurring with other disorders such as antisocial, histrionic, borderline, schizotypal and passive-aggressive personality disorders with antisocial having the most profound negative impact on prognosis (Calligor, et. al., 2015). Substance abuse disorders are prevalent in NPD with grandiose traits relating to substance abuse and comorbidity with antisocial and paranoid personality disorders (Calligor, et. al., 2015). NPD and SUD’s are commonly a dual diagnosis. Narcissism and clinical addiction are both associated with a need to feel and experience grandiose self-states with substances being used to regulate self-esteem and affect, rage, shame and a restoration to narcissistic homeostasis (Karakoula & Triliva, 2016). A study of 100 adults with SUD’s and NPD compared with 100 students in a control group used the PNI to measure both overt and covert expressions of
Image of page 13
CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 14 grandiose and vulnerable pathological narcissism.
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '18
  • Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Narcissistic personality disorder

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern