Guerilla fighters against Japanese rule- Ho Chi Minh and Kim il sung During the Japanese occupation Chiang Kai Shek and Mao Zedong called an uneasy truce to their civil war. Their military operations against Japan were largely ineffective. 15 mil Chinese died Why did the CCP defeat the GMD? The occupation of a divided Korea by the United States and the Soviet Union frustrated the efforts of Koreans to establish an independent government. The transplantation of two conflicting political ideologies south and north of the 38th parallel further intensified the national split. Among the Allies, the foreign ministers of the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain met in Moscow on December 15, 1945 , and decided to put Korea under the trusteeship of the four powers - the United States, the USSR, Britain and China - as a provisional step to unite the divided country. Three-stage war: North on offensive (summer 1950) North on the defensive; “rollback” (fall 1950 to mid 1951) “see-saw” (mid 1951 to 1953) Not a treaty, rather a truce; the division was made firm. Golden triangle and heroin trafficking
16 Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline established in 1950 and covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Special Activities Division from 1950 to 1976. It supplied and supported United States covert operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. In order to provide covert funds for the Kuomintang (KMT) forces loyal to General Chiang Kai-shek, who were fighting the Chinese communists under Mao Zedong, the CIA helped the KMT smuggle opium from China and Burma to Bangkok, Thailand, by providing airplanes owned by one of their front businesses, Air America. 1858 - India comes under direct rule of the British crown after failed Indian mutiny. 1885 - Indian National Congress founded as forum for emerging nationalist feeling. 1919 – Amritsar massacre, killing between 379 and 1499 people 1920-22 - Nationalist figurehead Mahatma Gandhi launches anti-British civil disobedience campaign. 1930 – March 12 , Gandhi leads Salt March 1942-43 - Congress launches "Quit India" movement. 1947 - End of British rule and partition of sub-continent into mainly Hindu India (15 August) and Muslim-majority state of Pakistan (14 August). Muhammad Ali Jinnah leads Pakistan as the Governor-General. Newly independent 1947-48 - Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition. 1948 - Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist, Nathuram Godse 1948 - War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir. 1951-52 - Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. Three major political mass movement campaigns 1920-1922 Non-cooperation movement (this reminds me of the WWI novel: Good soldier Schweik -through possibly-feigned idiocy or incompetence he repeatedly manages to frustrate military authority and expose its stupidity in a form of passive resistance, and absurdist artwork) 1930 Salt March 1942 Quit India rule. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). 1. taiping, meiji, mao communist 2. meiji, bandung, opium 3. meiji, Korean, boxer (self strengethening, rebellion
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- Fall '11
- Mao Zedong, Republic of China, Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek