Brittle deformation extensile or shear continuum of

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Brittle Deformation Extensile or Shear Continuum of Joints and Faults Faults as Strain Concentrators Internal Structure of Faults
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In Situ Stress Measurement Seismic data First motions Stress drops Hydraulic Fracturing Overcoring Borehole Breakouts
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Fault Types Normal — Extensile Deformation Hanging Wall down Horsts and Grabens Reverse — Compressive Deformation Hanging Wall up Thrust Faults Strike-slip Mostly transform faults
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Fault Nomenclature Hanging wall (overhead) Footwall (underfoot) Gouge Damage Zone Cataclasite Mylonite
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Normal Fault, Death Valley
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Normal Fault, Canyonlands
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Fault Gouge
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Sevier Thrust
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Keystone Thrust, Nevada
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Strike Slip Faults, Nevada
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Strike-Slip, San Andreas Fault, Carrizo Plain
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Engineering Concerns of Faults Planes of Weakness Sources of Seismic Hazard if Active Significant Water Courses Significant as Groundwater “Dams”
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Folds Anticline Concave down or oldest beds at core Syncline Concave up or youngest beds at core Overturned and Recumbent Folds Fold Terms Hinge, Axis
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Identifying Fold Types Attitude of beds Pattern of beds on geologic maps Anticline — oldest at core Syncline — youngest at core
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Engineering Concerns of Folds Means of Extrapolating Bed Locations Fracturing related to folding Favorable or non-favorable orientations of beds to engineered structures or slopes
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Ramp Fault, B.C.
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Recumbent Folds
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Fine-Scale Folding
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