Congruence fit between components is critical in

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2. Congruence ("fit') between components is critical in diagnosing the organization 3. Better the fit among components, more effective the organization - Example: Dell (pg. 71-74) provides good example of how N&T Congruence Model can be used > Dynamic Organizational Systems - Sterman's Systems Dynamics Model (pg. 76-78) - focuses on interplay of dynamic forces of the environment, managerial decisions, and actions of others - identifies the importance of organizational analysis through double loop and triple loop learning - 'Decisions' lead to 'Effects' and 'Side Effects'; these interact with the 'Environment' and the 'Actions of Others' to create a more complex set of responses - Managers need to recognize their assumptions and values that underlie their implicit understanding of organizational dynamics and the nature of the environment > Levels of Organizational Systems: Quinn's Competing Values Model (pg. 78-80) - outlines four frames based on a set of values and assumptions about the organization - two dimensions underlie and help define these frames: Internal-External and Control- Flexibility - each person will have natural perspective that tends to operate from one quadrant more than the others - Four value orientations: ~ Human Resources view (Internal-Flexibility; how to work with individuals/groups) ~ Internal Processes view (Internal-Control; how to understand and control the work unit) ~ Open Systems view (External-Flexibility; how to use power and manage change) ~ Rational Economic view (External-Control; how to stimulate individual/collective achievement) - links individual and organizational levels of analysis - to increase focus on a given quadrant, one needs to have managers develop the competencies needed and design systems to reinforce those skill behaviors - model can be used to characterize an organization's culture, to describe it's dominant tasks, to portrait the focus of its reward systems, or to describe a needed shift in task emphasis or in the types of people that it must recruit 5
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Chapter 3 Part 2 Organizational Change Over Time Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth (Page 81) o Greiner’s model hypothesizes that organizations move through five states of growth followed by five stages of crisis. o Growth - During the periods of relative stability, organizations tend to be in equilibrium, and evolutionary approaches to change are adopted in order to incrementally improve practices. Phase 1 - Creativity Phase 2 - Direction Phase 3 - Delegation Phase 4 - Coordination Phase 5 - Collaboration o Crisis - Demands revolutionary change disruptive to the organization. Phase 1- Crisis of leadership Phase 2- Autonomy Phase 3- Control Phase 4- Red tape Phase 5- ? (unknown) o An important key in identifying what to change is to embrace multiple perspectives, recognizing that each comes with its own biases and orientation on what needs to be done.
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