Affiliation with a group of kin through descent links of one sex
only is called unilineal descent.
Both patrilineality (father's lineage) and matrilineality (mother's lineage) are types of unilineal descent.
Question 16 of 40
In anthropology, phratry is a cluster
of sibs, clans, or kinship groups that have grouped together, either
because they share a belief in a common ancestor or because, even though the sibs or clans are not
actually related by blood, they have adopted common ceremonial and kinship practices.
The term phratry also must refer to three or more groups constituting a tribal society. (With only two such
groupings, the society takes on features of dual organization, and the groups are termed moieties.)
Question 17 of 40
According to a strict definition, moieties are groups that are exogamous (i.e., marriage between members
of the same moiety is forbidden), of unilineal
descent, and in some sense opposed.
Sometimes the term moiety is used more loosely to refer simply to one of two divisions of a society,
regardless of descent or marriage regulation, but in anthropology, the definition is "Either of two kinship
groups based on unilateral descent that together make up a tribe or society."
Question 18 of 40
Cognatic, or bilateral
, descent is, in a sense, the opposite of double descent. In a cognatic society there
are no unilineal groups (i.e., groups descended strictly in the father's or mother's line).
A person is reckoned to be equally related to kinfolk on either side of the family. Western societies are
mostly cognatic: although surnames, titles of nobility, and so on are inherited patrilineally, there are no
longer any patrilineal descent groups as such. For example, a 20th-century Italian, unlike an ancient
Roman, feels no closer to his father's brother's child than to any other cousin. They share the same
surname, but they do not share membership in a descent group comparable to the Roman gens.
Question 19 of 40
The children of siblings of the opposite sex are called cross