a. Oxygen b. CO2 c. Water d. ATP e. All of the above are correct What are the pyrimidines? - Cytosine and thymine In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ to CO2, and oxygen is ______ to water: a. Oxidized, reduced b. Reduced, oxidized c. Weak, polar d. Negative, positive The ____ form of electron carriers NADH/FADH2, NAD+/FADH have high potential energies: a. Reduced b. Oxidized c. Positive d. Negative Monosaccharides are attached to each other via what kind of bond? - Glycosidic bonds What is a missense mutation?
● a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid Nonsense? ● a sense codon that corresponds to one of the twenty amino acids specified by the genetic code is changed to a chain-terminating codon Frame shift? ● a sense codon that corresponds to one of the twenty amino acids specified by the genetic code is changed to a chain-terminating codon Synonymous? ● a change in the DNA sequence that codes for amino acids in a protein sequence, but does not change the encoded amino acid. What would the worst mutation be? ● Frameshift mutation, nonsense Where does glycolysis happen in Eukaryotes? a. Cytoplasm b. Nucleus c. Mitochondria d. Golgi Apparatus How many amino acids are used by life forms? a. 20 b. 40 c. 100 d. 1000 In lipids, are the heads hydrophobic or hydrophilic? a. Hydrophobic b. Hydrophilic
What has the highest melting point? a. short/saturated fatty acids b. short/unsaturated fatty acids c. long/saturated fatty acids d. long/unsaturated fatty acids What gives a protein its tertiary shape? a. Interactions of amino acids b. Interactions of peptide bonds c. Interactions of R groups How do two simple sugars combine? a. Peptide bond Nope!! This is how proteins combine :) b. Phosphodiester bond c. Covalent bond d. Glycosidic bond ← this is how simple sugars combine How do nucleic acids combine? a. Peptide bond b. Phosphodiester bond c. Covalent bond d. Glycosidic bond What is a violation of the central dogma? Example? RNA→ RNA (influenza) RNA→ DNA (HIV) Protein→ protein (prion) What separates the strands of the parental double helix at the replication fork?
a. Helicase b. Topoisomerase c. Ligase d. Polymerase In transcription, which strand is transcribed? a. Template strand b. Coding strand c. Okazaki fragment d. RNA primer strand In prokaryotes, you can have multiple genes on one mRNA: a. Polygenetic b. Allele c. Polycistronic d. RNA factor (Not a question) Epigenetic mechanisms: Chromatin remodeling: influences the coiling state of DNA Histone modification: modifying histone tails Cytosine methylation: silences gene expression X-inactivation-dosage compensation: shuts down one X-chromosome during embryonic development What happens in negative transcriptional regulation? a. More makes more--binding of protein is necessary for transcription b. More makes less--such binding prevents transcription What is catabolism?
a. Building up b. Breaking down c. Both A and B What are cofactors?