# Adi shankara institute of engineering and technology

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ADI SHANKARA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KALADYDepartment of Civil Enggineering, ASIETPage 172ρsat=𝐌(?𝐚???𝐚???)?d.Submerged Mass Density (ρ): Submerged mass per unit of total volume.ρ=𝑴(𝑺?????𝒈??)?ρ= ρsat-ρwρwdensity of watere.Mass density of solids (ρs) : Ratio of mass of solids to the volume of solids3.5Volume-Weight RelationshipVolume weight relationships are expressed in unit weight.Weight of soil per unit volume is known asunit weight.a.Bulk unit weight (γ) :Total weight(W) per unit total volume(V).γ =??b.Dry unit weight (γd) : Weight of solids (Ws) per unit total volume (V).γd=Ws?c.Saturated Mass Density (γsat) : Bulk unit weight of the soil when it is fully saturated.γsat=?(?𝐚???𝐚???)?d.Submerged Mass Density (γ): Submerged weight per unit of total volume.γ=?(𝑺?????𝒈??)?γ= γsat-γwγwunit weight of watere.Unit weight of soil solids (γs) : Ratio of the weight of solids to the volume of solids.3.6Basic RelationshipsS.NoRelationship in Mass densityRelationship in Unit weight1?=??+??=??+?2?=?? − ??=?? − ?3na=nacna=nac4𝛒=(𝐆+𝐒?)𝛒𝐰?+?𝛄=(𝐆+𝐒?)𝛄𝐰?+?S.NoRelationship in Mass densityRelationship in Unit weight5ρd=𝐆𝛒𝐰?+?γd=𝐆𝛄𝐰?+?6𝛒?𝐚?=(𝐆+?)𝛒𝐰?+?𝛄?𝐚?=(𝐆+?)𝛄𝐰?+?
ADI SHANKARA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KALADYDepartment of Civil Enggineering, ASIETPage 1737𝛒=(𝐆 − ?)𝛒𝐰?+?𝛄=(𝐆 − ?)𝛄𝐰?+?8?=??𝑺?=??𝑺9𝛒?=𝛒?+𝐰𝛄?=𝛄?+𝐰10𝛒?=? − ?𝐚 𝐆𝛒𝐰?+𝐰𝐆𝛄?=? − ?𝐚 𝐆𝛄𝐰?+𝐰𝐆4.Properties of soilDivided into two categories- Engineering and index properties4.1Engineering propertiesPermeabilityRequired for estimation of seepage discharge through earthCompressibility- Required for the computation of settlement of structures founded on soilShear strength- Requires to determine the stability of slopes, bearing capacity of soils andearth pressureNote: All the above three parameters discussed in detail in upcoming topics.4.2Index propertiesDivided into two categories- (1) Properties of individual particles and(2) Properties of soilmass / aggregate properties4.2.1Properties of Individual Particles.Determined from a remoulded, disturbed sample.Depends on individual grainsIndependent of the manner of soil formationImportant properties of individual particles of coarse grained soils areparticle sizedistributionandgrain shape4.2.2Properties of aggregate propertiesDepends upon mode of soil formation, soil history and soil structureDetermined from undisturbed samplesAggregate property of the coarse grained soils of great practical importance is itsrelativedensity4.3Mechanical Analysis/ Particle size analysis( Refer G.T Lab manual)It is a method of separation of soils into different fractions based on the particle size. It is showngraphically on a particle size distribution curve. It is done in two ways(1)Sieve Analysis(a)Dry sieve Analysis for coarse grained soils particle size greater than 75micronset of sieves used of gravel fraction- 20 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm sand fraction 2 mm, 1mm, 600μ, 425 μ , 212 μ , 150 μand 75 μ –(b)wet sieve analysis is employed if the soil containssubstantial quantity of fine particles.

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ADI SHANKARA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, Department of Civil Enggineering